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Racial differences in central hemodynamic burden in men with HIV: preliminary findings. - Ethnicity & disease
African Americans infected with HIV are almost 3 times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than their White HIV-infected counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in novel measures of vascular function and CVD risk in African American and White men infected with HIV.Our study uses a cross-sectional approach.Participants were recruited from the nutrition/infectious disease clinic at a large metropolitan hospital.African American men (n=21) and White men (n=21) with HIV on stable anti-retroviral therapy were included in this study.High resolution ultrasound was used to assess brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). Applanation tonometry was used to measure carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid augmentation index (Alx) and carotid-brachial pulse pressure (PP) amplification. Left ventricular (LV) pressure effort was derived from the contour of the central BP waveform.There were no racial differences in brachial FMD (African American: 4.9 +/- 1.1 vs White: 5.4 +/- 1.0%; P>.05) or carotid-femoral PWV (African American: 8.9 +/- .6 vs White: 8.7 +/- .4 m/s; P>.05). African American men with HIV had significantly higher carotid-radial PWV (11.3 +/- .4 vs 9.8 +/- .3 m/s; P<.05), higher carotid Alx (6 +/- 3 vs -1 +/- 2%; P<.05), higher LV pressure effort (2262 +/- 369 vs 1030 +/- 140 dyne sec/cm2; P<.05) and lower PP amplification (1.10 +/- .03 vs 1.24 +/- .03; P<.05) compared to White men with HIV.Elevated CVD risk in African American men with HIV may be partially mediated by increased central hemodynamic burden and not endothelial dysfunction or increased aortic stiffness.
Predictors of Weight Change in Male HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam. - AIDS research and treatment
We examined clinical and nutritional predictors of weight change over two consecutive 6-month intervals among 99 HIV-positive male injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi, Vietnam. The average weight gain was 3.1 Â± 4.8â€‰kg in the first six months after ART and 0.8 Â± 3.0â€‰kg in the following six months. Predictors of weight change differed by interval. In the first interval, CD4 < 200â€‰cells/Î¼L, excellent/very good adherence to ART, bothersome nausea, and liquid supplement use were all associated with positive weight changes. Moderate to heavy alcohol use and tobacco smoking were associated with negative weight changes. In the second interval, having a CD4 count <200â€‰cells/Î¼L at the beginning of the interval and tobacco smoking were the only significant predictors and both were associated with negative weight changes. We identified several potential areas for interventions to promote weight gain immediately after starting ART in this population. Studies are needed to determine whether improving weight prior to, or at, ART initiation will result in improved outcomes on ART.
Malnutrition in a population of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users living in Chennai, South India. - Drug and alcohol dependence
Malnutrition is a strong predictor of poor outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Drug users are at increased risk of malnutrition regardless of whether or not they are infected with HIV. Little data exists on the nutritional status of drug users (with or without HIV infection) in India.We describe and compare the nutrition and metabolic status of 107 HIV-positive and 193 HIV-negative male clients of a community-based drop-in center for injection drug users in Chennai, India. Measures of nutrition and metabolic status include body composition, dietary intake, food insecurity, and serum lipid levels.We found poor overall nutritional status in both the HIV-positive and HIV-negative clients, with HIV-positive men faring worse on some parameters. Both groups had extremely low percent body fat, but levels in HIV-positive participants were significantly lower (6.5% versus 7.9%, p=.01). HIV-positive men also had significantly lower total caloric and fat intakes compared to HIV-negative men. A considerable proportion (70%) of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users were food insecure. HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower and below normal range in the HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative men.The high levels of food insecurity and poor nutritional status in this population, regardless of HIV status, indicates critical need for intervention. Improving nutritional status in those who are infected with HIV prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment may help patients to reap the full benefits of therapy.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appropriately assessing renal function for drug dosing. - Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
Chronic kidney disease affects millions of Americans. Many drugs are eliminated from the body by the kidneys. As renal function declines due to the disease, drugs that are normally eliminated by the kidneys can accumulate, potentially leading to toxicity. Assessing kidney function in patients is essential in determining the appropriate dose of medications to achieve the desired clinical outcome while minimizing the potential for toxicity.
Effect of a dietary intervention and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on measures of serum lipid and insulin sensitivity in persons with HIV. - The American journal of clinical nutrition
Elevated serum triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations have been reported in persons with HIV.The effect of a dietary intervention plus n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid supplementation on serum triglycerides and markers of insulin sensitivity was investigated.Fifty-four persons with HIV and elevated serum triglycerides (>150 mg/dL) and/or abnormal Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index values (<0.35 but >0.30) were recruited for a dietary intervention in which total fat, type of fat, fiber, and glycemic load were controlled along with supplementation with n-3 fatty acids to achieve an intake of 6 g/d. The subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, and serum lipids, markers of insulin sensitivity, and serum phospholipid fatty acids were measured in both groups at baseline, 3 wk, and 13 wk.Triglycerides in the intervention group decreased from a median of 180 mg/dL (interquartile range: 141, 396) to 114 mg/dL (interquartile range: 84, 169) from baseline to 3 wk, whereas they remained stable in the control group (P = 0.003). Serum phospholipid fatty acids indicated a decrease in de novo lipogenesis and a decrease in arachidonic acid (% nmol; P
Metabolic syndrome and serum fatty acid patterns in serum phospholipids in hypertriglyceridemic persons with human immunodeficiency virus. - The American journal of clinical nutrition
HIV infection and its treatment are associated with abnormal lipid profiles. High triglyceride concentrations and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations are the most common health abnormalities and raise concerns about an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.We compared the fatty acid patterns of serum phospholipids between persons with HIV and non-HIV controls to determine whether there are differences that explain the elevated triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, and inflammation that are part of the metabolic syndrome in patients with HIV.Thirty-nine persons with HIV and elevated serum triglycerides (>150 mg/dL) and/or indicators of insulin resistance were recruited to examine fatty acid profiles in serum phospholipid fractions relative to those of 2 control groups without HIV (n = 31).Higher concentrations of 16:1 and 18:0 fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction indicated increased lipogenesis in the HIV patients and in the non-HIV controls at risk of the metabolic syndrome. However, the subjects with HIV had higher concentrations of both n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 fatty acids of higher elongation and desaturation levels, which indicated a greater promotion of these pathways in this population. The nanomolar percentage (%nmol) arachidonic acid was the same in all 3 groups.Persons with and without HIV, at risk of the metabolic syndrome, show indications of increased lipogenesis, more so in subjects with HIV taking medication. Higher proportions of distal elongation and desaturation fatty acid products were seen only in the phospholipids fatty acid fraction of the subjects with HIV.
Dietary glycemic index of human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with and without fat deposition. - Journal of the American Dietetic Association
This study focused on dietary glycemic index because insulin resistance can be important in the pathogenesis of fat deposition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We evaluated differences in past dietary glycemic intake between men with HIV who developed fat deposition and those who did not. This was a nested case-control study consisting of 37 cases and 37 controls from the Nutrition for Healthy Living cohort. Food records from 6 to 24 months prior to development of fat deposition in cases were analyzed and compared with controls. Cases were defined as men with a waist-to-hip ratio >0.95 and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 23 and 26. Controls were matched by age, race, body mass index, highly active antiretroviral therapy use, and CD4 count. Food records were analyzed using t tests for normally distributed nutrients and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for nutrients with skewed distributions. Glycemic index was calculated for each meal and day. There was no significant difference in glycemic index for meals and day between participants with or without fat deposition. Both groups had a moderate dietary glycemic index intake. This study showed no association between dietary glycemic index and development of fat deposition in HIV. Instead, results of this study depict the potential benefits associated with eating high-quality diets, primarily adequate fiber and protein intake. Diet can be important in preventing development of fat deposition in patients with HIV.
The role of nutrition in fat deposition and fat atrophy in patients with HIV. - Nutrition in clinical care : an official publication of Tufts University
HIV-associated body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities, called HIV-associated lipodystrophy, are being seen with increased frequency. These issues may be associated with an increased risk of other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, or with poor adherence to antiretroviral medications. Diet may be useful in the prevention and treatment of lipodystrophy and is a cost-effective and non-toxic intervention. At present, there are limited data on nutrition and HIV-related body shape changes. The purpose of this article is to review the roles that diet may play in the development and treatment of fat deposition and fat atrophy.
High-fiber diet in HIV-positive men is associated with lower risk of developing fat deposition. - The American journal of clinical nutrition
Lipodystrophy has been described with increasing frequency in patients infected with HIV. This study focused on the identification of dietary components that may predispose HIV-positive patients to the development of fat deposition.We evaluated differences in past dietary intake between men with HIV who developed fat deposition and those who did not.This nested case-control study consisted of 47 cases and 47 controls from the Nutrition for Healthy Living cohort. Food records from 6 to 24 mo before development of fat deposition in cases were analyzed and compared with food records from controls by using t tests for normally distributed nutrients and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for nutrients with skewed distributions.HIV-positive patients without fat deposition had greater overall energy intakes (kcal/kg; P = 0.03) and greater intakes of total protein (P = 0.01), total dietary fiber (P = 0.01), soluble dietary fiber (P = 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (P = 0.03), and pectin (P = 0.02) than did HIV-positive patients with fat deposition. Those without fat deposition also tended to currently perform more resistance training (P = 0.05) and to not be current smokers (P = 0.05).Our results indicate that an overall high-quality diet, rich in fiber and adequate in energy and protein, may be beneficial in preventing the development of fat deposition in persons infected with HIV. The results of this study further emphasize that a healthy lifestyle, including exercise and avoidance of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, may also be similarly beneficial.
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