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Correlation between laboratory coagulation testing and thromboelastometry is modified during management of trauma patients. - The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
Thromboelastometry (ROTEMÂ®) is increasingly being used to make a diagnosis of coagulopathy and to guide hemostatic therapy (HT). Although ROTEMÂ® parameters and standard laboratory test (SLT) correlated well before administration of HT, it is not known if this correlation persists after hemostatic resuscitation.A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a trauma registry (2011-2014) was performed. All patients having a ROTEMÂ® analysis were included. ROTEMÂ® parameters (clotting time, CT and clot amplitude at 5 min, A5) were determined after activation with tissue factor (EXTEM) or platelet inhibition with cytochalasine D (FIBTEM). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated for the correlation between SLT and thromboelastometry parameters and thresholds were determined with ROC curve analysis for the diagnosis of an INR > 1.5, a fibrinogen â‰¤ 1.5 g.l and platelet count < 100.10.l.Of the 358 patients included, 533 thromboelastometry results were obtained (335 at admission, 198 during care). Correlation between INR and EXTEM-CT was good at admission (r= 0.617) in the whole cohort but decrease in the subgroup of patients having an ISS < 25 (r= 0.399) or a base excess < 6 mmol.l (r= 0.489). During care correlation was impaired after the administration of fibrinogen concentrates in the whole cohort (r= 0.430) as well as in the subgroup of patients having an ISS > 24 (r= 0.465). As well, for the diagnosis of increased INR, sensitivity and the area under the ROC curve decreased from 75% and 0.894 (no treatment) to 20% and 0.653 (fibrinogen concentrate). Areas under the ROC curve for the prediction of a fibrinogen or platelet decrease were not significantly altered regardless of the treatment group.A decreased of the correlation between standard laboratory tests and ROTEMÂ® parameters, was observed at admission or during care, which could be in relation with injury severity, base deficit or the administration of blood products, particularly fibrinogen concentrate. Further work will be necessary to better understand which tool is the most suitable for guiding hemostatic therapy.Diagnostic study, level III.
Long livestock farming history and human landscape shaping revealed by lake sediment DNA. - Nature communications
The reconstruction of human-driven, Earth-shaping dynamics is important for understanding past human/environment interactions and for helping human societies that currently face global changes. However, it is often challenging to distinguish the effects of the climate from human activities on environmental changes. Here we evaluate an approach based on DNA metabarcoding used on lake sediments to provide the first high-resolution reconstruction of plant cover and livestock farming history since the Neolithic Period. By comparing these data with a previous reconstruction of erosive event frequency, we show that the most intense erosion period was caused by deforestation and overgrazing by sheep and cowherds during the Late Iron Age and Roman Period. Tracking plants and domestic mammals using lake sediment DNA (lake sedDNA) is a new, promising method for tracing past human practices, and it provides a new outlook of the effects of anthropogenic factors on landscape-scale changes.
Functional and morphological adaptation to peptidoglycan precursor alteration in Lactococcus lactis. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Cell wall peptidoglycan assembly is a tightly regulated process requiring the combined action of multienzyme complexes. In this study we provide direct evidence showing that substrate transformations occurring at the different stages of this process play a crucial role in the spatial and temporal coordination of the cell wall synthesis machinery. Peptidoglycan substrate alteration was investigated in the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis by substituting the peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis genes of this bacterium for those of the vancomycin-resistant bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. A set of L. lactis mutant strains in which the normal d-Ala-ended precursors were partially or totally replaced by d-Lac-ended precursors was generated. Incorporation of the altered precursor into the cell wall induced morphological changes arising from a defect in cell elongation and cell separation. Structural analysis of the muropeptides confirmed that the activity of multiple enzymes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis was altered. Optimization of this altered pathway was necessary to increase the level of vancomycin resistance conferred by the utilization of d-Lac-ended peptidoglycan precursors in the mutant strains. The implications of these findings on the control of bacterial cell morphogenesis and the mechanisms of vancomycin resistance are discussed.
Carbons prepared from coffee grounds by H3PO4 activation: characterization and adsorption of methylene blue and Nylosan Red N-2RBL. - Journal of hazardous materials
Activated carbons were prepared by the pyrolysis of coffee grounds impregnated by phosphoric acid at 450 degrees C for different impregnation ratios: 30, 60, 120 and 180 wt.%. Materials were characterized for their surface chemistry by elemental analysis, "Boehm titrations", point of zero charge measurements, Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); as well as for their porous and morphological structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption at 77K. The impregnation ratio was found to govern the porous structure of the prepared activated carbons. Low impregnation ratios (<120 wt.%) led to essentially microporous and acidic activated carbons whereas high impregnation ratios (>120 wt.%) yielded to essentially mesoporous carbons with specific surface areas as high as 925 m(2)g(-1), pore volume as large as 0.7 cm(3)g(-1), and neutral surface. The activated carbons prepared from coffee grounds were compared to a commercial activated carbon (S(BET) approximately 1400 m(2)g(-1)) for their adsorption isotherms of methylene blue and "Nylosan Red N-2RBL", a cationic and anionic (azo) dye respectively. The mesoporous structure of the material produced at 180 wt.% H(3)PO(4) ratio was found to be appropriate for an efficient sorption of the latter azo dye.(c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sonochemical degradation of PAH in aqueous solution. Part I: monocomponent PAH solution. - Ultrasonics sonochemistry
The sonolysis of selected monocomponent PAH aqueous solution is studied at 20 and 506 kHz in the microg l(-1) range. The highest activity observed at 506 kHz, compared to 20 kHz, is tentatively explained by examination of the physical characteristics of bubbles (size and life-time) as well as by the calculation of the number of bubble at both frequency (5 x 10(3)bubbles l(-1) at 20 kHz and 4.5 x 10(9)bubbles l(-1) at 506 kHz). It is demonstrated that the main mechanism of sonodegradation is the pyrolysis of PAHs in the heart of the cavitation bubbles, and that a possible PAH oxidation by means of HO degrees appears as a minor way, since gaseous byproducts such as CO, CO2, C2H2 and CH4 have been detected. Correlations have been found by examination of kinetic variations in terms of the physical-chemical properties of PAHs. The rate constants of PAH degradation increase when the water solubility, the vapour pressure and the Henry's law constant increase.
A statistical thermodynamic approach to sonochemical reactions. - Ultrasonics sonochemistry
The calculation of the equilibrium constants K of the sonolysis reactions of CO2 into CO and O atom, the recombination of O atoms into O2 and the formation of H2O starting with H and O atoms, has been studied by means of statistical thermodynamic. The constants have been calculated at 300 kHz versus the pressure and the temperature according to the extreme conditions expected in a cavitation bubble, e.g. in the range from ambient temperature to 15200 K and from ambient pressure to 300 bar. The decomposition of CO2 appears to be thermodynamically favored at 15200 K and 1 bar with a constant K1=1.52 x 10(6), whereas the formation of O2 is not expected to occur (K2=1.8 x10(-8) maximum value at 15200 K and 300 bar) in comparison to the formation of water (K3=3.4 x 10(47) at 298 K and 300 bar). The most thermodynamic favorable location of each reactions is then proposed, the surrounding shell region for the thermic decomposition of CO2 and the wall of the cavitation bubble for the formation of water. Starting from a work of Henglein on the sonolysis of CO2 in water at 300 kHz, the experimental amount of CO formed (7.2 x 10(20)molecules L(-1)) is compared to the theoretical CO amount (1.4 x 10(27)molecules L(-1)) which can be produced by the sonolysis of the same starting amount CO2. With the help of the literature data, the number of cavitation bubble has been evaluated to 6.2 x 10(15) bubbles L(-1) at 300 kHz, in 15 min. This means that about 1 bubble on 1900000 is efficient for undergoing the sonolysis of CO2.
Association between antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent fetal loss in women without autoimmune disease: a metaanalysis. - The Journal of rheumatology
To assess the strength of association between recurrent fetal loss (RFL) and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in women without autoimmune disease, and to examine whether magnitude of association varies according to type or titer of antibody and timing of fetal loss.We searched Medline and Current Contents for articles published between 1975 and 2003 with terms denoting early (less than 13 weeks) and late (less than 24 weeks) RFL associated with various aPL. Published case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies rated moderate or strong were included in our metaanalysis. Pooled odds ratios with 95% CI were generated using the random-effects models with Cochrane Review Manager software.Our analysis included 25 studies. Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) was associated with late RFL (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.30-26.45); the association of LAC was stronger than that of any other aPL. IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), when combining all titers, were associated with both early (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.48-8.59) and late RFL (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.26-5.65). Restricting analysis to include only women with moderate to high titers increased the strength of association (OR 4.68, 95% CI 2.96-7.40). It was not possible to extract data on isolated low IgG aCL positivity. IgM aCL were associated with late RFL (OR 5.61, 95% CI 1.26-25.03). There was no association found between early RFL and anti-Beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.69-6.53).The magnitude of the association between aPL and RFL varies according to type of aPL. More data on the relationship between recurrent fetal loss and isolated IgM aCL as well as with low titer IgG aCL would be useful. The place of testing for anti-Beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies remains to be determined.
Design of a multivalent galactoside ligand for selective targeting of HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates to human colon cancer cells. - European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymers have been shown to be efficient carriers for anticancer drugs because of their versatile chemistry and good biocompatibility. As demonstrated with hepatocytes, targeting efficacy of anticancer drugs could be further improved when the drug (doxorubicin) was conjugated to HPMA copolymers with biorecognisable groups, such as simple carbohydrates. The present study was devised to learn whether the cluster (multivalent) construction of carbohydrate residues could improve the targeting capability of HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates towards human colon adenocarcinoma cells. DOX was linked via a lysosomally degradable tetrapeptide sequence to HPMA copolymers bearing galactosamine (GalN), lactose (Lac), or multivalent galactose residues (TriGal) to produce targetable polymeric drug carriers. The effect of the type of sugar moiety and its three-dimensional cluster arrangement on biorecognition by three human colon-adenocarcinoma cell lines was studied. The role of galectin-3 in the biorecognition of HPMA copolymer conjugates was explored. Biorecognition of the targetable (glycoside-bearing) conjugates decreased their IC(50) doses in comparison to the non-targetable (non-glycosylated) conjugates. The biorecognition of the TriGal-containing HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugate by the cells was superior with concomitant decrease of its IC(50) doses. It is suggested that the increased cytotoxicity of the glycosylated HPMA-copolymer-DOX conjugates toward human colon-adenocarcinoma cells was caused by their biorecognition and effective internalisation via receptor-mediated endocytosis. All three human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines tested, Colo-205, SW-480 and SW-620, expressed the galectin-3 protein and the galectin-3-specific RNA. However, contrary to expectation, Colo-205 cells did not express a detectable amount of galectin-3 on the cell surface. This suggests that the binding of the glycoside-bearing HPMA copolymer-DOX conjugates to the cells was mediated not only by galectin-3. We conclude that targeting of the anticancer agent, doxorubicin, using HPMA copolymer conjugates bearing multivalent galactoside residues can improve their cytotoxicity.
A novel combination of promoter and enhancers increases transgene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and coronary arteries in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. - Gene therapy
Recombinant adenoviruses are employed widely for vascular gene transfer. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a relatively poor target for transgene expression after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery, however, even when expression is regulated by powerful, constitutive viral promoters. The major immediate-early murine cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter (MIEmCMV) elicits substantially greater transgene expression than the human cytomegalovirus promoter (MIEhCMV) in all cell types in which they have been compared. The Woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) increases transgene expression in numerous cell lines, and fragments of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) promoter increase expression within SMC from heterologous promoters. We therefore, compared the expression of beta-galactosidase after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of lacZ under the transcriptional regulation of a variety of combinations of the promoters and enhancers described, in vitro and in porcine coronary arteries. We demonstrate that inclusion of WPRE and a fragment of the rabbit SMMHC promoter along with MIEmCMV increases beta-galactosidase expression 90-fold in SMC in vitro and approximately 40-fold in coronary arteries, compared with vectors in which expression is regulated by MIEhCMV alone. Expression cassette modification represents a simple method of improving adenovirus-mediated vascular gene transfer efficiency and has important implications for the development of efficient cardiovascular gene therapy strategies.
Primary anetoderma: a cutaneous sign of antiphospholipid antibodies. - Lupus
Although a few reports in recent years have suggested that patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are prone to developing primary anetoderma (PA), it is still unclear how often aPL are detected in unselected PA patients. We studied nine consecutive PA patients for the presence of autoimmune antibodies and disorders in general and the presence of aPL in particular. Six of the nine patients had clinical evidence of associated autoimmune disorders (Graves'disease and autoimmune haemolysis in one, systemic scleroderma in one, Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one, alopecia areata in one) and/or signs of hypercoagulability (recurrent fetal loss in two, recurrent stokes in one, recurrent deep vein thrombosis in one). In four ofthese six patients the onset of PA preceded these signs. Positive aPL was found in all: anticardiolipin (aCL) in six, anti-beta2-glycoprotein-I (a(beta)2GPI) in six and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) in four. The most frequent isotype was IgA. Among other autoantibodies found the most frequently was antinuclear antibodies. Four ofthe nine patients fulfilled the criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is concluded that PA is an important cutaneous sign for autoimmune disorders in general and the presence of aPL in particular. Hence, the work-up of these patients should include testing for LAC as well as for all different isotypes ofaCL and a(beta)2GPI. We recommend that PA be added to the list of the cutaneous manifestations of APS.
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