Dr. Patrick  Twomey   image

Dr. Patrick Twomey

400 E 3Rd St
Duluth MN 55805
218 868-8364
Medical School: University Of Minnesota Medical School - 1991
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 40433
NPI: 1972537215
Taxonomy Codes:

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Dr. Patrick Twomey is associated with these group practices

Procedure Pricing

HCPCS Code Description Average Price Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
HCPCS Code:88112 Description:Cytopath cell enhance tech Average Price:$224.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:88307 Description:Tissue exam by pathologist Average Price:$236.80 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:88331 Description:Path consult intraop 1 bloc Average Price:$192.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:88305 Description:Tissue exam by pathologist Average Price:$123.25 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:88342 Description:Immunohistochemistry Average Price:$122.14 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:84165 Description:Protein e-phoresis serum Average Price:$74.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:88304 Description:Tissue exam by pathologist Average Price:$43.35 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:86335 Description:Immunfix e-phorsis/urine/csf Average Price:$29.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
HCPCS Code:86334 Description:Immunofix e-phoresis serum Average Price:$29.00 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:

HCPCS Code Definitions

Level III - Surgical pathology, gross and microscopic examination Abortion, induced Abscess Aneurysm - arterial/ventricular Anus, tag Appendix, other than incidental Artery, atheromatous plaque Bartholin's gland cyst Bone fragment(s), other than pathologic fracture Bursa/synovial cyst Carpal tunnel tissue Cartilage, shavings Cholesteatoma Colon, colostomy stoma Conjunctiva - biopsy/pterygium Cornea Diverticulum - esophagus/small intestine Dupuytren's contracture tissue Femoral head, other than fracture Fissure/fistula Foreskin, other than newborn Gallbladder Ganglion cyst Hematoma Hemorrhoids Hydatid of Morgagni Intervertebral disc Joint, loose body Meniscus Mucocele, salivary Neuroma - Morton's/traumatic Pilonidal cyst/sinus Polyps, inflammatory - nasal/sinusoidal Skin - cyst/tag/debridement Soft tissue, debridement Soft tissue, lipoma Spermatocele Tendon/tendon sheath Testicular appendage Thrombus or embolus Tonsil and/or adenoids Varicocele Vas deferens, other than sterilization Vein, varicosity
Cytopathology, selective cellular enhancement technique with interpretation (eg, liquid based slide preparation method), except cervical or vaginal
Immunofixation electrophoresis; other fluids with concentration (eg, urine, CSF)
Immunofixation electrophoresis; serum
Protein; electrophoretic fractionation and quantitation, serum
Level IV - Surgical pathology, gross and microscopic examination Abortion - spontaneous/missed Artery, biopsy Bone marrow, biopsy Bone exostosis Brain/meninges, other than for tumor resection Breast, biopsy, not requiring microscopic evaluation of surgical margins Breast, reduction mammoplasty Bronchus, biopsy Cell block, any source Cervix, biopsy Colon, biopsy Duodenum, biopsy Endocervix, curettings/biopsy Endometrium, curettings/biopsy Esophagus, biopsy Extremity, amputation, traumatic Fallopian tube, biopsy Fallopian tube, ectopic pregnancy Femoral head, fracture Fingers/toes, amputation, non-traumatic Gingiva/oral mucosa, biopsy Heart valve Joint, resection Kidney, biopsy Larynx, biopsy Leiomyoma(s), uterine myomectomy - without uterus Lip, biopsy/wedge resection Lung, transbronchial biopsy Lymph node, biopsy Muscle, biopsy Nasal mucosa, biopsy Nasopharynx/oropharynx, biopsy Nerve, biopsy Odontogenic/dental cyst Omentum, biopsy Ovary with or without tube, non-neoplastic Ovary, biopsy/wedge resection Parathyroid gland Peritoneum, biopsy Pituitary tumor Placenta, other than third trimester Pleura/pericardium - biopsy/tissue Polyp, cervical/endometrial Polyp, colorectal Polyp, stomach/small intestine Prostate, needle biopsy Prostate, TUR Salivary gland, biopsy Sinus, paranasal biopsy Skin, other than cyst/tag/debridement/plastic repair Small intestine, biopsy Soft tissue, other than tumor/mass/lipoma/debridement Spleen Stomach, biopsy Synovium Testis, other than tumor/biopsy/castration Thyroglossal duct/brachial cleft cyst Tongue, biopsy Tonsil, biopsy Trachea, biopsy Ureter, biopsy Urethra, biopsy Urinary bladder, biopsy Uterus, with or without tubes and ovaries, for prolapse Vagina, biopsy Vulva/labia, biopsy
Pathology consultation during surgery; first tissue block, with frozen section(s), single specimen
Level V - Surgical pathology, gross and microscopic examination Adrenal, resection Bone - biopsy/curettings Bone fragment(s), pathologic fracture Brain, biopsy Brain/meninges, tumor resection Breast, excision of lesion, requiring microscopic evaluation of surgical margins Breast, mastectomy - partial/simple Cervix, conization Colon, segmental resection, other than for tumor Extremity, amputation, non-traumatic Eye, enucleation Kidney, partial/total nephrectomy Larynx, partial/total resection Liver, biopsy - needle/wedge Liver, partial resection Lung, wedge biopsy Lymph nodes, regional resection Mediastinum, mass Myocardium, biopsy Odontogenic tumor Ovary with or without tube, neoplastic Pancreas, biopsy Placenta, third trimester Prostate, except radical resection Salivary gland Sentinel lymph node Small intestine, resection, other than for tumor Soft tissue mass (except lipoma) - biopsy/simple excision Stomach - subtotal/total resection, other than for tumor Testis, biopsy Thymus, tumor Thyroid, total/lobe Ureter, resection Urinary bladder, TUR Uterus, with or without tubes and ovaries, other than neoplastic/prolapse
Immunohistochemistry or immunocytochemistry, each separately identifiable antibody per block, cytologic preparation, or hematologic smear; first separately identifiable antibody per slide

Medical Malpractice Cases

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Doctor Name
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Diagnostic Radiology
Diagnostic Radiology
Diagnostic Radiology
Diagnostic Radiology
Diagnostic Radiology
Cardiac Electrophysiology
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Twomey has made to other doctors


Why are clinical practice guidelines not followed? - Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are written with the aim of collating the most up to date information into a single document that will aid clinicians in providing the best practice for their patients. There is evidence to suggest that those clinicians who adhere to CPG deliver better outcomes for their patients. Why, therefore, are clinicians so poor at adhering to CPG? The main barriers include awareness, familiarity and agreement with the contents. Secondly, clinicians must feel that they have the skills and are therefore able to deliver on the CPG. Clinicians also need to be able to overcome the inertia of "normal practice" and understand the need for change. Thirdly, the goals of clinicians and patients are not always the same as each other (or the guidelines). Finally, there are a multitude of external barriers including equipment, space, educational materials, time, staff, and financial resource. In view of the considerable energy that has been placed on guidelines, there has been extensive research into their uptake. Laboratory medicine specialists are not immune from these barriers. Most CPG that include laboratory tests do not have sufficient detail for laboratories to provide any added value. However, where appropriate recommendations are made, then it appears that laboratory specialist express the same difficulties in compliance as front-line clinicians.
Intravenous Artesunate for the Treatment of Severe and Complicated Malaria in the United States: Clinical Use Under an Investigational New Drug Protocol. - Annals of internal medicine
Quinidine gluconate, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for life-threatening malaria in the United States, has a problematic safety profile and is often unavailable in hospitals.To assess the safety and clinical benefit of intravenous artesunate as an alternative to quinidine.Retrospective case series.U.S. hospitals.102 patients aged 1 to 72 years (90% adults; 61% men) with severe and complicated malaria. Patients received 4 weight-based doses of intravenous artesunate (2.4 mg/kg) under a treatment protocol implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between January 2007 and December 2010. At baseline, 35% had evidence of cerebral malaria, and 17% had severe hepatic impairment. Eligibility required the presence of microscopically confirmed malaria, need for intravenous treatment, and an impediment to quinidine.Clinical and laboratory data from each patient's hospital records were abstracted retrospectively, including information from baseline through a maximum 7-day follow-up, and presented before a physician committee to evaluate safety and clinical benefit outcomes.7 patients died (mortality rate, 6.9%). The most frequent adverse events were anemia (65%) and elevated hepatic enzyme levels (49%). All deaths and most adverse events were attributed to the severity of malaria. Patients' symptoms generally improved or resolved within 3 days, and the median time to discharge from the intensive care unit was 4 days, even for patients with severe liver disease or cerebral malaria. More than 100 concomitant medications were used, with no documented drug-drug interactions.Potential late-presenting safety issues might occur outside the 7-day follow-up.Artesunate was a safe and clinically beneficial alternative to quinidine.
A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine - Preliminary Report. - The New England journal of medicine
Background The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has resulted in more than 24,000 cases and 10,000 deaths. We present a preliminary report from two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate to prevent EVD. Methods We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 26 adults at each site (52 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13 each. Three volunteers in each group received an intramuscular injection of placebo, and 10 received an intramuscular injection of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine at a dose of either 3 million plaque-forming units (PFU) or 20 million PFU. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed for the 28 days after vaccination. Results The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, myalgia, and fatigue; no events resulted in withdrawal from the study. Transient VSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the group receiving 20 million PFU than in the group receiving 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA (geometric mean antibody titer, 4079 vs. 1300; P<0.001) and by pseudovirion neutralization assay (geometric mean antibody titer, 441 vs. 223; P=0.07). Conclusions No safety concerns were identified after a single administration of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine candidate, and anti-Ebola immune responses were identified in all the volunteers. VSV viremia was detected but was of limited duration. These preliminary results support the further development of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP numbers, NCT02269423 and NCT02280408 .).
Monitoring laboratory data across manufacturers and laboratories--A prerequisite to make "Big Data" work. - Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
"The Percentiler" project provides quasi real-time access to patient medians across laboratories and manufacturers. This data can serve as "clearinghouse" for electronic health record applications, e.g., use of laboratory data for global health-care research.Participants send their daily outpatient medians to the Percentiler application. After 6 to 8weeks, the laboratory receives its login information, which gives access to the user interface. Data is assessed by peer group, i.e., 10 or more laboratories using the same test system. Participation is free of charge.Participation is global with, to date, >120 laboratories and >250 instruments. Up to now, several reports have been produced that address i) the general features of the project, ii) peer group observations; iii) synergisms between "The Percentiler" and dedicated external quality assessment surveys. Reasons for long-term instability and bias (calibration- or lot-effects) have been observed for the individual laboratory and manufacturers."The Percentiler" project has the potential to build a continuous, global evidence base on in vitro diagnostic test comparability and stability. As such, it may be beneficial for all stakeholders and, in particular, the patient. The medical laboratory is empowered for contributing to the development, implementation, and management of global health-care policies.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
External quality assessment: best practice. - Journal of clinical pathology
There is a requirement for accredited laboratories to participate in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes, but there is wide variation in understanding as to what is required by the laboratories and scheme providers in fulfilling this. This is not helped by a diversity of language used in connection with EQA; Proficiency testing (PT), EQA schemes, and EQA programmes, each of which have different meanings and offerings in the context of improving laboratory quality. We examine these differences, and identify what factors are important in supporting quality within a clinical laboratory and what should influence the choice of EQA programme. Equally as important is how EQA samples are handled within the laboratory, and how the information provided by the EQA programme is used. EQA programmes are a key element of a laboratory's quality assurance framework, but laboratories should have an understanding of what their EQA programmes are capable of demonstrating, how they should be used within the laboratory, and how they support quality. EQA providers should be clear as to what type of programme they provide - PT, EQA Scheme or EQA Programme.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Elevated levels of proliferating and recently migrated tumor-associated macrophages confer increased aggressiveness and worse outcomes in breast cancer. - Annals of surgical oncology
Macrophages play a major role in inflammatory processes and have been associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Previously, we investigated the relationship of a subset of tumor-associated macrophages (PCNA(+) TAMs) with clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer. We reported that high PCNA(+) TAM counts were associated with hormone receptor (HR)-negative, high-grade tumors and early recurrence. To further understand the significance of elevated PCNA(+) TAMs and the functionality of TAMs, we examined the expression of S100A8/S100A9 with the antibody Mac387. The heterodimeric S100A8/S100A9 complex plays a role in inflammation and is increased in several cancer types.We performed immunohistochemistry using the Mac387 antibody on 367 invasive human breast cancer cases. Results were compared to previous PCNA(+) TAM counts and were correlated with patient outcomes adjusting for HR status and histologic grade.Like PCNA(+) TAMs, high Mac387 counts were associated with HR negativity, high tumor grade, younger age, and decreased recurrence-free survival. Mac387, however, appears to identify both a subset of macrophages and a subset of tumor cells. The concordance between Mac387 and PCNA(+) TAM counts was low and cases that had both high Mac387 and high PCNA(+) TAMs counts had a stronger association with early recurrence.The presence of high numbers of PCNA(+) TAMs and Mac387-positive cells in breast cancers with poor outcomes may implicate a subset of TAMs in breast cancer pathogenesis, and may ultimately serve to develop potential cellular targets for therapeutic interventions.
Daily and intermittent rosuvastatin 5 mg therapy in statin intolerant patients: an observational study. - Current medical research and opinion
To examine the efficacy and tolerability of rosuvastatin 5 mg at daily and non-daily dosing regimens.A retrospective survey was conducted at nine primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare centres in the United Kingdom.Changes in lipid fractions from baseline values after more than 3 months' treatment.A total of 325 patients were identified. These patients were aged 63 ± 10 years, 50% male and prescription was mostly for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (59%). Co-morbidities included: established CVD present in 41%, type 2 diabetes mellitus (15%), hypertension (74%) and smoking (9%). Adverse effects had been documented to simvastatin (75%) or atorvastatin (63%). A total of 289 patients (89%) tolerated rosuvastatin well and were still adherent after a median follow-up of 14.9 (3-79) months. The remainder (n = 36; 11%) discontinued the medication after median 5 months' treatment due to adverse effects. Efficacy was assessed in 224 patients who had adequate data. Baseline lipids were total cholesterol (TC) 7.41 ± 1.50 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG) 2.26 (range 0.36-18.4) mmol/L; high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 1.43 ± 0.47 mmol/L and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 4.76 ± 1.38 mmol/L. Daily rosuvastatin (n = 134) reduced mean TC by 31%, TG 15% and LDL-C 43% (p < 0.001). Rosuvastatin 5 mg 2-3 times weekly (n = 79) reduced TC 26%, TG 16% and LDL-C 32% (p < 0.001). Weekly rosuvastatin (n = 11) reduced TC 17%, LDL-C by 23% (p < 0.001) but had no effect on TGs. Targets were attained in 17% of CHD-risk equivalent patients and 41% of primary prevention patients by National Cholesterol Education Program criteria and 27% and 68% using UK targets. No myositis or rhabdomyolysis was observed and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) were similar to baseline.In this retrospective observational multicentre study, rosuvastatin 5 mg was found to be safe and biochemically effective either as daily or intermittent therapy in patients intolerant to other conventional statin regimens.
Elevated PCNA+ tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer are associated with early recurrence and non-Caucasian ethnicity. - Breast cancer research and treatment
African American and Hispanic women develop more triple negative breast cancer at younger ages than Caucasian women. The frequently observed association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) has confounded our understanding of the outcomes disparities seen in these groups. Given the association between inflammatory cells and high-grade, triple negative tumors, we sought to investigate whether differences in the presence of these cells varies by race. We evaluated breast tumor specimens for the presence PCNA+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in consecutive cases from a county hospital serving primarily un- or under-insured patients. All patients in this cohort had elevated PCNA + TAM levels. Higher PCNA + TAM counts were associated with hormone receptor (HR) negative tumors and non-Caucasian ethnicity. Hispanic women specifically had significantly higher PCNA + TAM counts than Caucasian patients and shorter disease-free survival. These findings implicate immune function in the development of aggressive breast cancer and suggest a possible link between SES and the inflammatory response.
Analytical quality goals for 25-vitamin D based on biological variation. - Journal of clinical laboratory analysis
Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25D) is central in the investigation of pathologies of bone and mineral ion metabolism and in determining a patient's vitamin D status. More recently much research interest has lead to investigating the role it can play in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses, including common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the biological variation of an analyte forms an essential part of evaluating a new analyte enabling the objective assessment of the changes in serial results, the utility of reference intervals as well as establishing laboratory quality specifications.This study determined the biological variation of 25D in 20 healthy individuals that was calculated according to the familiar methods outlined by Fraser and Harris.The within-subject variation was 12.1% and the between subject variation was 40.3%. The critical difference for sequential values significant at P<0.05 was calculated as 38.4%. The within-subject variation forms a relatively small part of the reference interval shown by the low index of individuality of 0.3. Objective analytical quality goals have also been established which have shown achievable minimum performance for imprecision of ∼6%. The desirable analytical bias goal was ∼10%.This study has objectively shown that the analytical precision of current instruments is being achieved contrary to the known problems surrounding the analytical bias for 25D assays. The limitations of using reference intervals for 25D, both in diagnoses and monitoring are shown.© 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Transfusion, not just injury severity, leads to posttrauma infection: a matched cohort study. - The American surgeon
Blood transfusion has been associated with infection; however, the collinearity of injury severity has not been clearly addressed to show a direct relationship. Using more rigorous analysis, we aimed to untangle the effect of injury severity from transfusion leading to sepsis. We hypothesized that blood transfusion independently increases infection in massively transfused versus nontransfused patients with matched Injury Severity Scores (ISSs). We performed a matched cohort study measuring infection rates in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. Control subjects were contemporaneous patients with matched ISS receiving no blood. Infection was defined as intraperitoneal or intrathoracic abscesses, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or bacteremia. Multivariate logistic and univariate analysis was completed. Infection rate was 61 per cent in 44 transfused patients versus 20 per cent in 44 control subjects (P = 0.001). Odds of infection were eightfold greater in transfused patients (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 2.3 to 27.5; P < 0.001) independent of ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanism, and age. Infection was most associated with transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), although transfusion of other blood products had strong collinearity with PRBCs. Transfused patients had eight times the risk of infection independent of ISS; this appears to be the result of PRBC transfusion. Modifying the ratio of components in transfusion protocols favoring plasma may cause less infection after injury.

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400 E 3Rd St Duluth, MN 55805
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