120 Battery St
San Francisco CA 94111
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MRI-PET image fusion based on NSCT transform using local energy and local variance fusion rules. - Journal of medical engineering & technology
Image fusion means to integrate information from one image to another image. Medical images according to the nature of the images are divided into structural (such as CT and MRI) and functional (such as SPECT, PET). This article fused MRI and PET images and the purpose is adding structural information from MRI to functional information of PET images. The images decomposed with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform and then two images were fused with applying fusion rules. The coefficients of the low frequency band are combined by a maximal energy rule and coefficients of the high frequency bands are combined by a maximal variance rule. Finally, visual and quantitative criteria were used to evaluate the fusion result. In visual evaluation the opinion of two radiologists was used and in quantitative evaluation the proposed fusion method was compared with six existing methods and used criteria were entropy, mutual information, discrepancy and overall performance.
Correlation between expression of CatSper family and sperm profiles in the adult mouse testis following Iranian Kerack abuse. - Andrology
Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an Iranian illicit drug, Kerack, on sperm parameters, testicular structure and CatSper genes expression of mice. In this study, 25 male mice were divided into five groups consisting of control, sham and three experimental groups. All animal in experimental groups were addicted to Kerack for 7 days. These experimental groups include experimental I which was given Kerack at a dose of 5 mg/kg, experimental II, 35 mg/kg and experimental III, 70 mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice a day for a period of 35 days. Mice were then sacrificed and spermatozoas were removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for count, motility, morphology (normal/abnormal) and viability. Right testes were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopic studies whereas left testes removed were subjected to total mRNA extraction for using in real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The results were analyzed by performing anova (Tukey's tests) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelium thickness were decreased in experimental groups (dose-dependently) vs. sham and control groups (p < 0.05). RT-PCR results showed that CatSper 2, 3, 4 genes expressions were reduced with 35 and 70 mg/kg injected Kerack when compared with control testes (p â‰¤ 0.05). However, CatSper1 expression was only reduced with high dose injected Kerack (70 mg/kg) in comparison to control testes (p â‰¤ 0.05). This study shows the deleterious effects of Kerack used in Iran on testis structure and sperm parameters in general, and particularly sperm morphology in adult mouse. It could down-regulate the expression of CatSper genes, resulting in depression of sperm motility.Â© 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Antioxidant effect of manganese on the testis structure and sperm parameters of formalin-treated mice. - Andrologia
Manganese inhibits oxidative stress damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of manganese on testis structure and sperm parameters in adult mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). Twenty adult male NMRI mice were selected and randomly divided into four groups: (i) control; (ii) sham; (iii) 'FA'-exposed group; and (iv) 'FA and manganese chloride'-exposed group. The FA-exposed groups received 10 mg kg(-1) FA daily for 14 days, and manganese chloride was just injected intraperitoneally 5 mg kg(-1) on 2nd weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and spermatozoa were collected from the cauda of the right epididymis and analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. The other testicular tissues were weighed and prepared for histological examination upon removal. Seminiferous tubules, lumen diameters and epithelium thickness were also measured. The findings revealed that FA significantly reduced the testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and normal morphology compared with control group (P â‰¤ 0.05). In addition, seminiferous tubules atrophied and seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated in the FA group in comparison with the control group (P â‰¤ 0.05). However, manganese improved the testicular structure and sperm parameters in FA-treated mice testes (P â‰¤ 0.05). According to the results, manganese may improve and protect mice epididymal sperm parameters and testis structure treated with FA respectively.Â© 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Celecoxib as adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. - Schizophrenia research
Some evidence suggests that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is associated with the abnormal immune system, and cytokines may be important in schizophrenia. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines including Th1-like cytokines. Indeed, COX-2 inhibitors rebalance type-1 and type-2 immune response. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of celecoxib as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in an eight-week, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Eligible participants in this study were 60 patients with chronic schizophrenia. All patients were inpatients and were in the active phase of the illness, and met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia. Patients were allocated in a random fashion, 30 to risperidone 6 mg/day plus celecoxib 400 mg/day (200 mg bid) (morning and evening) and 30 to risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. Although both protocols significantly decreased the score of the positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms over the trial period, the combination of risperidone and celecoxib showed a significant superiority over risperidone alone in the treatment of positive symptoms, general psychopathology symptoms as well as PANSS total scores. The means Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale for the placebo group were higher than in the celecoxib group over the trial. However, the differences were not significant. The results of this study suggest that celecoxib may be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with chronic schizophrenia and anti-inflammatory therapies should be further investigated.
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120 Battery St San Francisco, CA 94111
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