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Dr. Forrest  Smith  Md image

Dr. Forrest Smith Md

1393 Santa Rita Rd Ste B
Pleasanton CA 94566
925 340-0100
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: C35811
NPI: 1962504076
Taxonomy Codes:
207VX0000X

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Publications

GC-MS analysis of the regioisomeric methoxy- and methyl-benzoyl-1-pentylindoles: Isomeric synthetic cannabinoids. - Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society
The regioisomeric 1-n-pentyl-3-(methoxybenzoyl)indoles and the 1-n-pentyl-3-(methylbenzoyl)indoles represent potential designer modifications in the synthetic cannabinoid drug category. These six compounds were prepared by a two-step synthetic method. The analytical properties and methods of regioisomeric differentiation were developed in this study. The molecular ion represents the base peak in the EI mass spectra for most of the compounds in this group. The meta- and para-isomers in each series display fragment ions at equivalent masses with some differences in relative abundance of these ions. The ortho-substituted isomers for both the methoxybenzoyl and methylbenzoyl series show a unique fragment ion occurring at M-17. Deuterium labeling for the methoxy group in the ortho-methoxybenzoyl isomer (ortho-OCD3) confirmed the ortho-substituent as the source of the hydrogen in OH (M-17) elimination. The two sets of regioisomers were well resolved by capillary gas chromatography and the elution order reflected increasing molecular linearity. In both sets of compounds the ortho-isomer eluted first and the para-isomer showed the highest retention time. The HPLC separation showed the ortho-isomer eluting first and the meta-isomer eluting last in both sets of regioisomers.Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mass spectral studies on 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018), three deuterium-labeled analogues and the inverse isomer 1-naphthoyl-3-n-pentylindole. - Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
A number of synthetic cannabinoids such as the 1-alkyl-3-acylindoles are the target of significant designer drug activity. One of the first waves of these compounds identified in clandestine samples was 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-018. These totally synthetic molecules can be prepared in a number of regioisomeric forms.The electron ionization mass spectrometric (EI-MS) fragmentation of the 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole is compared to its inverse isomer 1-naphthoyl-3-n-pentylindole. These two substances are directly available from indole using identical precursor reagents and similar reaction conditions. Stable isotope deuterium labeling of the three major regions of the JWH-018 molecule allows confirmation of the structures of the major fragment ions. The spectra for the 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-d5 -indole, 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-d7 -naphthoyl)indole and 1-d11 -n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole provide significant assistance in elucidating the structures for the major fragment ions in JWH-018.The EI mass spectra for these isomers show a number of unique ions which allow for the differentiation of the 1-alkyl-3-acylindole compounds from the inverse regioisomeric 1-acyl-3-alkylindoles. The fragment ion [M-17](+) at m/z 324 for JWH-018 was formed by the elimination of a hydroxyl radical and the spectra of the three deuterium-labeled derivatives indicated the loss of hydrogen from the naphthalene ring. Further structural analogues suggest the hydrogen to come from the 8-position of the naphthalene ring.The three deuterium-labeled analogues provide significant assistance in confirming the structures for the major fragment ions in the mass spectrum of the traditional synthetic cannabinoid compound, 1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-018. The 1-naphthoyl-3-n-pentylindole inverse regioisomer can be easily differentiated from the traditional synthetic cannabinoid compound. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The role of frataxin in doxorubicin-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. - American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anti-neoplastic agent; however, its cumulative dosing schedules are clinically limited by the development of cardiotoxicity. Previous studies have attributed the cause of DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity to mitochondrial iron accumulation and the ensuing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The present study investigates the role of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron-sulfur biogenesis protein, and its role in development of DOX-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Athymic mice treated with DOX (5 mg/kg, 1 dose/wk with treatments, followed by 2-wk recovery) displayed left ventricular hypertrophy, as observed by impaired cardiac hemodynamic performance parameters. Furthermore, we also observed significant reduction in FXN expression in DOX-treated animals and H9C2 cardiomyoblast cell lines, resulting in increased mitochondrial iron accumulation and the ensuing ROS formation. This observation was paralleled in DOX-treated H9C2 cells by a significant reduction in the mitochondrial bioenergetics, as observed by the reduction of myocardial energy regulation. Surprisingly, similar results were observed in our FXN knockdown stable cell lines constructed by lentiviral technology using short hairpin RNA. To better understand the cardioprotective role of FXN against DOX, we constructed FXN overexpressing cardiomyoblasts, which displayed cardioprotection against mitochondrial iron accumulation, ROS formation, and reduction of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Lastly, our FXN overexpressing cardiomyoblasts were protected from DOX-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into the development of DOX-mediated cardiomyopathy.Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
GC-MS studies on the six naphthoyl-substituted 1-n-pentyl-indoles: JWH-018 and five regioisomeric equivalents. - Forensic science international
The GC-MS properties of the synthetic cannabinoid drug of abuse 3-(1-naphthoyl)-1-pentylindole (JWH-018) and all 5 of its' regioisomeric 1-naphthoyl substituted 1-n-pentylindoles are compared in this report. These compounds have the 1-naphthoyl-group attached at each of the possible substituent positions of the indole ring. The six compounds have the same elemental composition C24H23NO and the same substituents attached to the indole ring. The electron ionization mass spectra showed equivalent regioisomeric major fragment ions resulting from cleavage of the groups attached to the central indole nucleus. The characteristic (M-17)(+) fragment ion at m/z 324 resulting from the loss of an OH group was significant in the EI-MS of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-(1-naphthoyl)-1-pentylindole. Fragment ions occurred at m/z 127 and 155 for the naphthyl and naphthoyl cations common to all six regioisomeric substances. Indole containing fragments produced the cations at m/z 284, 270, 214 and 186. The unique fragment at m/z 141 observed in the 1,2- and 1,7-isomers resulted from a rearrangement involving the two indole substituents to yield the C10H7CH2(+) cation. The major points of EI-MS differentiation of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 from the other five isomers are the high relative abundance of both the m/z 144 ion and the m/z 324 ion in the JWH-018 spectrum. GC separations on a capillary column containing a trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200) stationary phase provided excellent resolution of these six compounds. The elution order appears related to the relative distance between the two indole substituents with the lowest retention associated with minimum distance between the groups attached to the indole nucleus.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inactivation of myeloperoxidase by benzoic acid hydrazide. - Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is expressed by myeloid cells for the purpose of catalyzing the formation of hypochlorous acid, from chloride ions and reaction with a hydrogen peroxide-charged heme covalently bound to the enzyme. Most peroxidase enzymes both plant and mammalian are inhibited by benzoic acid hydrazide (BAH)-containing compounds, but the mechanism underlying MPO inhibition by BAH compounds is largely unknown. Recently, we reported MPO inhibition by BAH and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-BAH was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain glutamate 242 ((HC)Glu(242)) residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the heme linked light chain MPO subunit from the larger remaining heavy chain portion. Here we probed the structure and function relationship behind this ester bond cleavage using a panel of BAH analogs to gain insight into the constraints imposed by the MPO active site and channel leading to the buried protoporphyrin IX ring. In addition, we show evidence that destruction of the heme ring does not occur by tracking the heme prosthetic group and provide evidence that the mechanism of hydrolysis follows a potential attack of the (HC)Glu(242) carbonyl leading to a rearrangement causing the release of the vinyl-sulfonium linkage between (HC)Met(243) and the pyrrole A ring.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stability-indicating HPLC assay for lysine-proline-valine (KPV) in aqueous solutions and skin homogenates. - Biomedical chromatography : BMC
A simple, sensitive and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method was developed and validated for a bioactive peptide, lysine-proline-valine (KPV) in aqueous solutions and skin homogenates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, packed with 5 µm silica particles) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water (A) and 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile (B). The proposed HPLC method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, repeatability, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. Relative standard deviation values of accuracy and precision experiments were <2. The LOD and LOQ of KPV were 0.01 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. Under stress conditions (acid, alkali and hydrogen peroxide) KPV yielded lys-pro-diketopiperazine as major degradation product, which was identified by flow injection MS analysis. The developed HPLC method was found to be efficient in separating the active peptide from its degradation products generated under various stress conditions. Also, the validated method was able to separate KPV from other peaks arising from endogenous components of the skin homogenate.Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
GC-MS and FTIR evaluation of the six benzoyl-substituted-1-pentylindoles: isomeric synthetic cannabinoids. - Talanta
This report compares the GC-MS and FTIR properties of all 6 regioisomeric benzoyl substituted-1-n-pentylindoles. These compounds have the benzoyl-group attached at each of the possible ring substituent positions of the indole ring. The six compounds have the same elemental composition C20H21NO yielding identical nominal and exact masses. Additionally, the substituents attached to the indole ring, benzoyl- and 1-n-pentyl-groups, are identical for all six isomers. The electron ionization mass spectra show equivalent regioisomeric major fragments resulting from cleavage of the groups attached to the central indole nucleus. Fragment ions occur at m/z 77 and 105 for the phenyl and benzoyl cations common to all six regioisomeric substances. Fragmentation of the benzoyl and/or pentyl groups yields the cations at m/z 234, 220, 214, 186 and 144. While the relative abundance of the ions varies among the six regioisomeric substances the 1-n-pentyl-3-benzoylindole and 1-n-pentyl-5-benzoylindole share very similar relative abundances for the major fragment ions. Chromatographic separations on a capillary column containing a 0.5μm film of 100% trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200) provided excellent resolution of these six compounds. The elution order appears related to the relative distance between the two indole substituted groups. The latest eluting compounds (highest retention time) have the two substituents on opposite sides of the indole nucleus. Infrared absorption spectral data show the carbonyl absorption band for each of the benzoylindoles and provide distinguishing and characteristic information to individualize each of the regioisomers in this set of compounds.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ordered cleavage of myeloperoxidase ester bonds releases active site heme leading to inactivation of myeloperoxidase by benzoic acid hydrazide analogs. - Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and the formation of the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid. We present the application of the fluorogenic peroxidase substrate 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (ADHP) in steady-state and transient kinetic studies of MPO function. Using initial kinetic parameters for the MPO system, we characterized under the same conditions a number of gold standards for MPO inhibition, namely 4-amino benzoic acid hydrazide (4-ABAH), isoniazid and NaN3 before expanding our focus to isomers of 4-ABAH and benzoic acid hydrazide analogs. We determined that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide that 4-ABAH and its isomer 2-ABAH are both slow-tight binding inhibitors of MPO requiring at least two steps, whereas NaN3 and isoniazid-based inhibition has a single observable step. We also determined that MPO inhibition by benzoic acid hydrazide and 4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid hydrazide was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain Glu 242 residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the light chain and heme b fragment from the larger remaining MPO heavy chain. This new mechanism would essentially indicate that the benzoic acid hydrazide analogs impart inhibition through initial ejection of the heme catalytic moiety without prior loss of the active site iron.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analytical differentiation of 1-alkyl-3-acylindoles and 1-acyl-3-alkylindoles: isomeric synthetic cannabinoids. - Analytical chemistry
The 1-alkyl-3-acylindoles and the inverse regioisomeric 1-acyl-3-alkylindoles can be prepared directly from a common set of precursor materials and using similar synthetic strategies. The EI mass spectra for these isomers show a number of unique ions which allow for the differentiation of the 1-alkyl-3-acylindole compounds from the inverse regioisomeric 1-acyl-3-alkylindoles. The base peak at m/z 214 in the 1-n-pentyl-3-benzoylindole represents the M-77 cation fragment resulting from the loss of the phenyl group, and this ion is not observed in the inverse isomer. The 1-benzoyl-3-n-pentylindole inverse regioisomer shows a base peak at m/z 105 for the benzoyl cation. Thus, these two base peaks are the result of fragmentation initiated at the carbonyl-oxygen for both isomers. The 1-pentyl-3-benzoylindole is characterized by the strong intensity carbonyl band at 1703 cm(-1), while the amide carbonyl appears as a strong band of equal intensity at 1681 cm(-1) in the 1-benzoyl-3-pentyl regioisomer.
Effect of lipophilicity on microneedle-mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery across human skin in vitro. - Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
The effect of lipophilicity of drug on the microneedle (MN)-mediated iontophoretic delivery across dermatomed human skin was studied. Beta blockers with similar pKa but varied log P values were selected as model drugs in this study. Iontophoresis (ITP) or MNs, when used independently, increased the transdermal flux of beta blockers as compared with passive delivery (PD). ITP across the MN-treated skin (MN + ITP) increased the permeation rate of all beta blockers as compared with PD (p < 0.001). The enhancement ratios (ER) for hydrophilic molecules (atenolol and sotalol) were 71- and 78-fold higher for ITP + MN as compared with PD. However, for lipophilic molecule such as propranolol, there was 10-fold increase in the ER as compared with PD. These observations were further substantiated by the skin retention data; an inverse relationship between the skin retention and the hydrophilicity of the drug was observed. The results in the present study point out that the lipophilicity of the molecule plays a significant role on the electrically assisted transdermal delivery of drugs across the microporated skin. Using the combination of ITP + MN, hydrophilic drugs (atenolol and sotalol) were delivered at a much higher rate as compared with lipophilic molecules (propranolol and acebutolol).© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

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