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A pilot study of bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. - Journal of neuro-oncology
Although bevacizumab has not proven effective in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas (HGG), feasibility in newly diagnosed children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) or HGG has not been reported in a prospective study. In a safety and feasibility study, children and young adults with newly diagnosed HGG received radiotherapy (RT) with bevacizumab (10Â mg/kg: days 22, 36) and temozolomide (75-90Â mg/m(2)/day for 42Â days) followed by bevacizumab (10Â mg/kg, days 1, 15), irinotecan (125Â mg/m(2), days 1, 15) and temozolomide (150Â mg/m(2)/dayÂ days 1-5). DIPG patients did not receive temozolomide. Telomerase activity, quality of life (QOL), and functional outcomes were assessed. Among 27 eligible patients (15 DIPG, 12 HGG), median age 10Â years (range 3-29Â years), 6 discontinued therapy for toxicity: 2 during RT (grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 hepatotoxicity) and 4 during maintenance therapy (grade 3: thrombosis, hypertension, skin ulceration, and wound dehiscence). CommonestÂ â‰¥grade 3 toxicities included lymphopenia, neutropenia and leukopenia. Grade 3 hypertension occurred in 2 patients. No intracranial hemorrhages occurred. For DIPG patients, median overall survival (OS) was 10.4Â months. For HGG patients, 3-year progression free survival and OS were 33Â % (SEÂ Â±Â 14Â %) and 50Â % (SEÂ Â±Â 14Â %), respectively. All 3 tested tumor samples, demonstrated histone H3.3K27M (nÂ =Â 2 DIPG) or G34R (nÂ =Â 1 HGG) mutations. QOL scores improved over the course of therapy. A bevacizumab-based regimen is feasible and tolerable in newly diagnosed children and young adults with HGG and DIPG.
Bile Acid Signaling: Mechanism for Bariatric Surgery, Cure for NASH? - Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
Bariatric surgery is the most effective and durable treatment option for obesity today. More importantly, beyond weight loss, bariatric procedures have many advantageous metabolic effects including reversal of obesity-related liver disease--nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is an important comorbidity of obesity given that it is a precursor to the development of liver cirrhosis that may necessitate liver transplantation in the long run. Simultaneously, we and others have observed increased serum bile acids in humans and animals that undergo bariatric surgery. Specifically, our preclinical studies have included experimental procedures such as 'ileal transposition' or bile diversion and established procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the adjustable gastric band. Importantly, these effects are not simply the result of weight loss since our data show that the resolution of NASH and increase in serum bile acids are not seen in rodents that lose an equivalent amount of weight via food restriction. In particular, we have studied the role of altered bile acid signaling, in the potent impact of a bariatric procedure termed 'vertical sleeve gastrectomy' (VSG). In this review we focus on the mechanisms of NASH resolution and weight loss after VSG surgery. We highlight the fact that bariatric surgeries can be used as 'laboratories' to dissect the mechanisms by which these procedures work to improve obesity and fatty liver disease. We describe key bile acid signaling elements that may provide potential therapeutic targets for 'bariatric-mimetic technologies' that could produce benefits similar to bariatric surgery--but without the surgery!2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cytochrome c oxidase deficit is associated with the seizure onset zone in young patients with focal cortical dysplasia Type II. - Metabolic brain disease
It has been postulated that mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important factor in epileptogenesis of intractable epilepsy. The current study tests the hypothesis that mitochondrial Complex IV (CIV) or cytochrome c oxidase dysfunction is associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Subjects were selected based on: age <19y; epilepsy surgery between May, 2010 and October, 2011; pathological diagnosis of isolated focal cortical dysplasia Type I (FCDI) or Type II (FCDII); and sufficient residual cortical tissue to conduct analysis of electron transport chain complex (ETC) activity in SOZ and adjacent cortical regions. In this retrospective study, patients were identified who had sufficient unfixed, frozen brain tissue for biochemical analysis in tissue homogenates. Specimens were subtyped using ILAE classification for FCD, and excluded if diagnosed with FCD Type III or dual pathology. Analysis of ETC activity in resected tissues was conducted independently and without knowledge of the identity, diagnosis, or clinical status of individual subjects. Seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria, including 6 FCDI and 11 FCDII. Comparison of adjacent cortical resections showed decreased CIV activity in the SOZ of the FCDII group (Pâ€‰=â€‰0.003), but no significant CIV difference in adjacent tissues of the FCDI group. Because of the importance of CIV as the terminal and rate-limiting complex in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, these authors conclude that 1) a deficit of CIV is associated with the SOZ of patients with FCDII; 2) CIV deficiency may contribute to the spectrum of FCD neuropathology; and 3) further investigation of CIV in FCD may lead to the discovery of new targets for neuroprotective therapies for patients with intractable epilepsy.
Patterns of progression in pediatric patients with high-grade glioma or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma treated with Bevacizumab-based therapy at diagnosis. - Journal of neuro-oncology
There is a paucity of data regarding patterns of progression in children with high-grade glioma (HGG) or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) treated with bevacizumab (BVZ) at diagnosis. We performed a retrospective study of 20 children with HGG or DIPG who received BVZ-based therapy at diagnosis on, or according to, a bi-institutional study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of first and most recent progressions were reviewed. Comparison was made to a control group of 19 patients who never received BVZ. Imaging definitions of progressive disease (PD) were local: at primary site or within 2 cm, contiguous; diffuse: >2 cm away but contiguous with primary site, ill-defined and infiltrative; distant: new, non-contiguous disease. In the BVZ-treated group, 14 patients had DIPG, six patients had HGG. Median age was 7 years (range: 3-21). Median time to PD and follow-up were 8.8 months (range 4-21) and 11 months (range: 6-25), respectively. Among 14 patients with PD, 8 (57.1 %) had local PD, 6 (42.9 %) had local and diffuse/distant PD, at initial progression. At most recent progression, a median of 10.8 months (range 6-25) from diagnosis, 10 of 14 (71.4 %) had at least diffuse (n = 8), or distant (n = 6) PD. In the comparable control group, 15 patients had PD: 11(73.3 %) local, 4 (26.7 %) local and diffuse/distant PD at first and most recent progressions. Based on these data, we postulate that BVZ may lead to a higher incidence of distant and diffuse disease in newly-diagnosed children with HGG or DIPG who received BVZ-based therapy.
The role of small heterodimer partner in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease improvement after sleeve gastrectomy in mice. - Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Bile acids (BA) are elevated after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) is critical to the success of murine VSG. BA downregulate hepatic lipogenesis by activating the FXR-small heterodimer partner (SHP) pathway. The role of SHP in fatty liver disease improvement after VSG was tested.Wild type (WT), SHP liver transgenic (SHP-Tg), and SHP knockout (SHP-KO) high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice underwent either VSG or Sham surgery. Body weight, BA level and composition, steatosis, and BA metabolism gene expression were evaluated.Obese WT mice post-VSG lost weight, reduced steatosis, decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), had more BA absorptive ileal area, and elevated serum BA. Obese SHP-Tg mice post-VSG also lost weight and had decreased steatosis. SHP-KO mice were however resistant to steatosis despite weight gain on a HFD. Further SHP-KO mice that underwent VSG lost weight, but developed hepatic inflammation and had increased ALT.VSG produces weight loss independent of SHP status. SHP ablation creates a proinflammatory phenotype which is exacerbated after VSG despite weight loss. These inflammatory alterations are possibly related to factors extrinsic to a direct manifestation of NASH.Â© 2014 The Obesity Society.
Cerebral glucose hypometabolism is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with intractable epilepsy and cortical dysplasia. - Epilepsia
Metabolic imaging studies, such as positron emission tomography (PET), allow for an assessment of physiologic functioning of the brain, and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is now a commonly used technique in presurgical epilepsy evaluations. Focal interictal decreases in glucose consumption are often but inconsistently concordant with the ictal onset area, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The current study tests the hypothesis that areas of glucose hypometabolism, determined by FDG-PET, are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with medically intractable epilepsy associated with isolated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).Measures of electron transport chain (ETC) functioning and mitochondrial abnormalities (ETC complex biochemistry, protein kinase B subtype 1 (Akt1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) were assessed in surgical resection specimens that had hypometabolic abnormalities and those that were normal on FDG-PET. Determination of FDG-PET abnormalities was based on coregistration of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) results with postsurgical images.Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age at the time of surgery 10.5 Â± 4.4 years), with pathologically confirmed FCD, were included in this retrospective review. Complex IV function was found to be significantly reduced in areas of hypometabolism (p = 0.014), whereas there was a trend toward a significant reduction in complex II and III function in areas of hypometabolism (p = 0.08, p = 0.059, respectively). These decreases were independent of cortical dysplasia severity (p = 0.321) and other clinical epilepsy measures.This study suggests an association between glucose hypometabolism and reduced mitochondrial complex IV functioning, which is independent of the degree of cortical dysplasia. This supports the role of cellular energy failure as a potential mechanism for intractable epilepsy.Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Â© 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.
A combination of mild hypothermia and sevoflurane affords long-term protection in a modified neonatal mouse model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. - Anesthesia and analgesia
Infant brain injury from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can lead to life-long impairment, but protective strategies are lacking. Short-term but not long-term protection has been demonstrated in the Rice-Vannucci neonatal brain ischemia model (RVM) by volatile anesthetic administration before HI, while exposure during HI has not been tested. In the current study, we evaluated a combination of sevoflurane and mild hypothermia as a protective approach during HI, both short- and long-term, by introducing intubation and mechanical ventilation to the RVM.The right common carotid artery was ligated in 10-day-old mice during brief sevoflurane anesthesia, followed by a 2-hour recovery with the dam. Littermates were then randomized to either: HI spontaneously breathing 10% oxygen for 60 minutes (the classical RVM); HI-Protect mild hypothermia and orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation with 3.5% sevoflurane in 10% oxygen for 60 minutes; or Room Air spontaneously breathing room air for 60 minutes. In a nonsurviving cohort, cerebral oxygenation was monitored in the area at risk and the contralateral hemisphere during HI or HI-Protect using visible-light spectroscopy (Spectros Corp). Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Arterial blood gases were obtained. Right/left brain hemispheric weight ratios and brain damage scores were determined 1 week after HI. In another group, learning and behavior were assessed in young adulthood (9 weeks) using spontaneous locomotion, Morris water maze, and apomorphine injection.During HI, ipsilateral and contralateral brain oxygenation, arterial blood pressures, blood gases, and glucose levels were similar in both ischemic groups, while heart rate was slower in the HI-Protect group. One week after ischemia, brain hemispheric weight ratios and injury scores in several brain regions were significantly worse after HI, compared with HI-Protect. Nine weeks after HI, Morris water maze hidden platform and reversal platform escape latencies, measures of spatial memory function, were superior after HI-Protect, compared with HI (P < 0.0001). HI-Protect animals demonstrated significantly less circling behavior after an apomorphine challenge (P < 0.0001), a measure of striatal integrity.To test the neuroprotective effects of volatile anesthetics during neonatal brain ischemia, we developed a modification of the RVM. By using mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation, sevoflurane administration during HI was survivable. The combination of sevoflurane administration and mild hypothermia during HI conferred not only short-term structural, but also long-term functional protection, compared with littermates treated according to the RVM. These findings warrant further studies to improve neurological outcome in critically ill infants.
Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in the resection region correlate with histopathological type, gliosis extent, and postoperative outcome in pediatric cortical dysplasia. - Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
OBJECT.: The authors conducted a study to correlate histopathological features, MRI findings, and postsurgical outcomes in children with cortical dysplasia (CD) by performing a novel resection site-specific evaluation.The study cohort comprised 43 children with intractable epilepsy and CD. The MR image review was blinded to pathology but with knowledge of the resection location. An MRI score (range 0-7) was calculated for each resection region based on the number of imaging features of CD and was classified as "lesional" or "nonlesional" according to all imaging features. Outcome was determined using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. The determination of pathological CD type was based on the ILAE 2011 consensus classification system, and the cortical gliosis pattern was assessed on GFAP staining.There were 89 resection regions (50 ILAE Type I, 29 Type IIa, and 10 Type IIb). Eleven (25.6%) of 43 children had more than one type of CD. The authors observed MRI abnormalities in 63% of patients, characteristic enough to direct resection (lesional) in 42%. Most MRI features, MRI score â‰¥ 3, and lesional abnormalities were more common in patients with Type II CD. Increased cortical signal was more common in those with Type IIb (70%) rather than Type IIa (17.2%) CD (p = 0.004). A good outcome was demonstrated in 39% of children with Type I CD and 72% of those with Type II CD (61% in Type IIa and 100% in Type IIb) (p = 0.03). A lesional MRI abnormality and an MRI score greater than 3 correlated with good outcome in 78% and 90% of patients, respectively (p < 0.03). Diffuse cortical gliosis was more prevalent in Type II CD and in resection regions exhibiting MRI abnormalities. Complete surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality was associated with a better postoperative outcome.This study provides a detailed correlation of MRI findings, neuropathological features, and outcomes in children with intractable epilepsy by using a novel resection site-specific evaluation. Because 25% of the patients had multiple CD subtypes, a regional analysis approach was mandated. Those children with lesional MRI abnormalities, Type II CD, and surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality had better outcomes. Type II CD is more detectable by MRI than other types, partly because of the greater extent of associated gliosis in Type II. Although MRI findings were correlated with the pathological CD type and outcome in this study, the majority of patients (58%) did not have MRI findings that could direct surgical therapy, underscoring the need for improved MRI techniques for detection and for the continued use of multimodal evaluation methods in patient selection.
The surgical management of pediatric brain tumors causing epilepsy: consideration of the epileptogenic zone. - Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Children suffering from epilepsy with suspected low-grade tumors may benefit from a surgical approach that considers the epileptogenic zone, which can be more extensive than the tumor region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in children undergoing supratentorial tumor resection and the factors predictive of postoperative seizure freedom in children with low-grade tumors.Subjects 3 months to 21 years undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection between 2007 and 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Children with supratentorial, cortically based tumors and a preoperative diagnosis of epilepsy were considered epilepsy surgery candidates. Pre- and postoperative MRI were reviewed and scored for extent of resection, adjacent dysplasia, and remaining abnormal cortex postoperatively.The prevalence of seizures in all cases of supratentorial tumors was 46/87 (53 %). Eighteen were epilepsy surgery candidates. Eight of 18 (44 %) were seizure-free postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 39 months. Children who were seizure free postoperatively had tried fewer anticonvulsants than those with continued seizures (1.7 v. 2.9, pâ€‰=â€‰0.01). Presurgical evaluation was nonstandardized, and a more extensive workup and resection were performed in children who continued to have seizures postoperatively.All epilepsy surgery candidates had low-grade tumors on histological evaluation, indicating that a surgical approach that takes into consideration the epileptogenic zone is reasonable in this population. Gross total resection should be the goal, with additional attention to resection of the epileptogenic zone when located in the noneloquent cortex.
Prognostic significance of telomere maintenance mechanisms in pediatric high-grade gliomas. - Journal of neuro-oncology
Children with high-grade glioma, including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), have a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy. Identifying novel therapeutic targets is critical to improve their outcome. We evaluated prognostic roles of telomere maintenance mechanisms in children with HGG, including DIPG. A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted involving 50 flash-frozen HGG (35 non-brainstem; 15 DIPG) tumors from 45 children (30 non-brainstem; 15 DIPG). Telomerase activity, expression of hTERT mRNA (encoding telomerase catalytic component) and TERC (telomerase RNA template) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism were assayed. Cox Proportional Hazard regression analyses assessed association of clinical and pathological variables, TERC and hTERT levels, telomerase activity, and ALT use with progression-free or overall survival (OS). High TERC and hTERT expression was detected in 13/28 non-brainstem HGG samples as compared to non-neoplastic controls. High TERC and hTERT expression was identified in 13/15 and 11/15 DIPG samples, respectively, compared to controls. Evidence of ALT was noted in 3/11 DIPG and 10/19 non-brainstem HGG specimens. ALT and telomerase use were identified in 4/19 non-brainstem HGG and 2/11 DIPG specimens. In multivariable analyses, increased TERC and hTERT levels were associated with worse OS in patients with non-brainstem HGG, after controlling for tumor grade or resection extent. Children with HGG and DIPG, have increased hTERT and TERC expression. In children with non-brainstem HGG, increased TERC and hTERT expression levels are associated with a worse OS, making telomerase a promising potential therapeutic target in pediatric HGG.
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