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Accumulation of behavioral validation evidence for physical activity stage of change. - Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
The purpose of this study was to accumulate behavioral validity evidence for physical activity Stage of Change (SOC).Nine studies used a common physical activity SOC measure and examined self-report, objective, and performance physical activity indicators to accumulate behavioral validity evidence for SOC. Type of measure, the strength of the expected relationship between the measure and SOC, and the predicted SOC differences were examined. Validity evidence for the SOC was also examined by population and sampling method.Validity evidence for physical activity SOC was classified with respect to the type of measurement instrument and the hypothesized magnitude of the relationship between the measure and the SOC.Physical activity SOC was found to be behaviorally valid as evidenced by self-reported physical activity, self-reported exercise, self-reported sedentary behaviors, pedometers, and physical functioning. Physical activity SOC does not appear to be related to physical fitness or weight indicators.This study highlights a successful multi-site collaboration. Physical activity data from nine large-scale, health trials was combined and accumulated behavioral validation evidence for the physical activity SOC.(Copyright) 2008 APA.
DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage. - Nature
Chromosome 17 is unusual among the human chromosomes in many respects. It is the largest human autosome with orthology to only a single mouse chromosome, mapping entirely to the distal half of mouse chromosome 11. Chromosome 17 is rich in protein-coding genes, having the second highest gene density in the genome. It is also enriched in segmental duplications, ranking third in density among the autosomes. Here we report a finished sequence for human chromosome 17, as well as a structural comparison with the finished sequence for mouse chromosome 11, the first finished mouse chromosome. Comparison of the orthologous regions reveals striking differences. In contrast to the typical pattern seen in mammalian evolution, the human sequence has undergone extensive intrachromosomal rearrangement, whereas the mouse sequence has been remarkably stable. Moreover, although the human sequence has a high density of segmental duplication, the mouse sequence has a very low density. Notably, these segmental duplications correspond closely to the sites of structural rearrangement, demonstrating a link between duplication and rearrangement. Examination of the main classes of duplicated segments provides insight into the dynamics underlying expansion of chromosome-specific, low-copy repeats in the human genome.
DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18. - Nature
Chromosome 18 appears to have the lowest gene density of any human chromosome and is one of only three chromosomes for which trisomic individuals survive to term. There are also a number of genetic disorders stemming from chromosome 18 trisomy and aneuploidy. Here we report the finished sequence and gene annotation of human chromosome 18, which will allow a better understanding of the normal and disease biology of this chromosome. Despite the low density of protein-coding genes on chromosome 18, we find that the proportion of non-protein-coding sequences evolutionarily conserved among mammals is close to the genome-wide average. Extending this analysis to the entire human genome, we find that the density of conserved non-protein-coding sequences is largely uncorrelated with gene density. This has important implications for the nature and roles of non-protein-coding sequence elements.
Physical activity staging distribution: establishing a heuristic using multiple studies. - Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
The purpose of this study was to identify the population prevalence across the stages of change (SoC) for regular physical activity and to establish the prevalence of people at risk. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, nine Behavior Change Consortium studies with a common physical activity SoC measure agreed to collaborate and share data. The distribution pattern identified in these predominantly reactively recruited studies was Precontemplation (PC) = 5% (+/- 10), Contemplation (C) = 10% (+/- 10), Preparation (P) = 40% (+/- 10), Action = 10% (+/- 10), and Maintenance = 35% (+/- 10). With reactively recruited studies, it can be anticipated that there will be a higher percentage of the sample that is ready to change and a greater percentage of currently active people compared to random representative samples. The at-risk stage distribution (i.e., those not at criteria or PC, C, and P) was approximately 10% PC, 20% C, and 70% P in specific samples and approximately 20% PC, 10% C, and 70% P in the clinical samples. Knowing SoC heuristics can inform public health practitioners and policymakers about the population's motivation for physical activity, help track changes over time, and assist in the allocation of resources.
Construct validity of the stages of change of exercise adoption for different intensities of physical activity in four samples of differing age groups. - American journal of health promotion : AJHP
To examine whether the stages of change of exercise adoption appropriately address strenuous, moderate, and mild intensities of physical activity.Secondary analysis of four data sets investigating transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs for exercise adoption.Four samples of differing age groups (adolescents, n = 400; college students, n = 240; adults, n = 346; seniors, n = 504).Stage of change algorithm for exercise adoption and self-reported physical activity.Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results showed that stages of change were distinguished by strenuous and moderate but not mild exercise in the adolescent, college student, and adult sample. In the senior sample, stage differences were found in the frequency of exercising (equivalent for moderate to strenuous exercise) and the frequency of walking (equivalent for mild exercise). Bivariate correlation coefficients as well as sensitivity, specificity, and related quality indices decreased respectively from strenuous to moderate to mild exercise and from exercising to walking.Results provide additional support for the construct validity of the stages of change for strenuous and moderate intensities of physical activity. Development of a new stage assessment instrument for mild intensities of physical activity is recommended. Limitations include use of a different validation measure of exercise behavior in the senior sample.
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