555 Chetco Avenue
Brookings OR 97415
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Sperm Viability Assessment over elapsing time maintained at 2 degrees C of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796). - Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
The aim of this study was to evaluate how long the fresh sperm maintained at 2 degrees C would be utilized for fishery management. The study was conducted every 2 h to assess the sperm viability of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea. Evaluations were conducted as 3 treatments; T1, T2 and T3. In T1, the live specimens were sacrificed; for T2, only spermatophores were extracted and for T3 spermatophore extraction followed by homogenization to create a sperm suspension. All samples were stored with ice in an insulated box was keep fresh longer at 2 degrees C. The time '0' referred the immediate collection of sperm after the specimen was sacrificed. Spermatophore viability was determined using the sperm suspension by eosin-nigrosin staining method. Sperm viability for the fresh sample at time zero was 97.36 Â± 0.53%. Viability of the sperm significantly decreased in the 2nd h in all treatments, T1 was 44.66 Â± 0.54 to 4.2 Â± 0.22% at 16 and 18th h, T2 was 36.56 Â± 0.5 to 2.69 Â± 0.06% at the 12 and 14th h and T3 was 33.69 Â± 1.26 to 6.4 Â± 0.29% at 8 and 10th h. In comparison, T1 showed significantly higher than other treatments (p < 0.05). Extremely low viability percentages were recorded in T3. This study also proved that the time elapse had significant impact on the percentage of viable sperm count.
Using Xpert MTB/RIF. - Current respiratory medicine reviews
Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF has demonstrated excellent accuracy in clinical evaluation studies, but has reduced sensitivity for detection of smear-negative tuberculosis. Since sample processing and detection are largely automated, Xpert MTB/RIF is potentially suitable for implementation in resource-limited settings. There are, however, a number of practical constraints to the use of Xpert at the point-of-care. Xpert remains a relatively costly test, and clear demonstration of cost-effectiveness will be needed to support efforts to scale up testing in high burden countries.
Patient involvement in enhanced recovery. - Nursing times
There are proven benefits of encouraging patients to play a more active role and take responsibility for their recuperation after all surgical procedures. This article explores the concept of enhanced recovery and the development of tools to support patients and health professionals in using an enhanced recovery pathway.
The effectiveness of Swedish massage and traditional Thai massage in treating chronic low back pain: a review of the literature. - Complementary therapies in clinical practice
To review the effectiveness of Swedish and traditional Thai massage in treating chronic low back pain.Thai and Swedish massage both appear to relieve lower back pain but their relative effectiveness has not been clearly established.A literature review of nine databases were searched and 13 papers found.Six papers meet the inclusion criteria and were summarised and reviewed. Both Thai and Swedish massages are reported to relieve chronic low back pain by enhancing physical functions; providing pain relief, improving disability and range of motion, improving psychological functions; reducing anxiety and improving mood. Although based on different theoretical frameworks, they appear to be equally effective in relieving chronic low back pain.Despite some evidence for the use of massage to relieve low back pain, methodological limitations highlight the need for further studies that compare Thai massage and Swedish massage.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vaccination with 3-dose paediatric rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeqÂ®): impact on the timeliness of uptake of the primary course of DTPa vaccine. - Vaccine
In countries like Australia where high coverage rates of early childhood vaccines has been achieved, ensuring timely vaccination is the next challenge--particularly where multiple doses are required for protection (e.g. DTPa vaccine). Since July 2007, for the first time, the Australian childhood vaccination schedule has included a vaccine (rotavirus vaccine) that must be administered within strict dosing windows.To determine whether the introduction of a 3-dose rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeqÂ® into the national childhood immunisation program in Victoria, Australia, had an impact on the timeliness of the primary course of DTPa vaccine that is also scheduled at the same ages (2, 4 and 6 months).We studied de-identified data of >17,000 children residing in four large and culturally diverse localities in the Eastern Region of Melbourne, Victoria who were born prior to or after the introduction of RotaTeqÂ® into the National Immunisation Program schedule. Timeliness was defined as the proportion of children who received a particular dose of DTPa vaccine within the dosing window for the equivalent dose of RotaTeqÂ®. We were particularly interested in any change in the timeliness of dose 3 of DTPa vaccine.Before the introduction of RotaTeqÂ®, timely uptake of doses 1 and 2 of DTPa vaccine was high (93-97%). However, timeliness of the 3rd dose was markedly lower, dropping to 80% in one locality. In the post-RotaTeqÂ® cohort, rates of timely uptake for doses 1 and 2 of DTPa vaccine remained high (97-99%). However, for DTPa vaccine dose 3, there was a clear trend toward improved timeliness--increasing by 5 to up to 12 percentage points compared with the pre-RotaTeqÂ® cohort.Inclusion in the national immunisation schedule of the 3-dose vaccine RotaTeqÂ® that has strict dosing windows encourages parents to present in a timely fashion for their child's vaccination, which in turn may drive an improvement in timeliness of other concurrently scheduled vaccines (e.g. DTPa). Introduction of government-funded RotaTeqÂ® may improve the uptake of the crucial 3rd dose of DTPa vaccine, where traditionally the greatest delays are noted.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Reliability of anthropometric measurements performed by community nutrition workers in a community-based pediatric growth-monitoring program in rural Rwanda]. - Revue d'Ã©pidÃ©miologie et de santÃ© publique
In Rwanda, the community-based growth-monitoring program is implemented via volunteer community nutrition workers. These volunteers are recruited from within their communities, and receive basic training prior to providing services. Utilizing local volunteers improves access to basic nutrition services, and allows the local health jurisdictions to use qualified health care staff more efficiently. In addition to concerns raised in regards to the accountability of unpaid workers, some question the relevance of the data that is collected. We carried out a nutritional survey in the catchment area of Ruli District Hospital to evaluate the reliability of the community nutrition workers' measurements of anthropometric standards collected within the growth-monitoring framework.A nutritional survey was recently organized in the catchment area of the hospital in December 2006. The prevalence rates of malnutrition from the survey were compared with those from the existing community-based growth-monitoring program. Z-test was used to compare the prevalence rate of underweight from the survey with the prevalence rate determined by data collected from community nutrition workers. The concordance of children classified with moderate and severe underweight in each data set was determined by the coefficient Kappa of Cohen.Our findings show that the recent survey reported an overall underweight prevalence rate of 27.2%. Community data calculated a prevalence rate of 28.8% for the same population. The difference is not statistically significant (P=0.294). Of 724 children evaluated, the survey and the community were in agreement in regards to 454 children classified in the category of good nutritional status, 143 children classified in moderate underweight and 11 children classified in the severe underweight category. The Kappa of Cohen coefficient of 0.636 indicates strong concordance between data sets.Anthropometric measurements provided by the community are reliable. Information gathered from the community can be used for epidemiologic monitoring of malnutrition. To ensure continued reliability, health centers must provide sufficient and permanent training to community nutrition workers. In addition, continued access to essential materials used for measuring nutritional status and maintenance of these materials will be crucial to the program's ongoing success.Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
[Improving the management of a community based growth-monitoring program for children in rural Rwanda]. - Revue d'Ã©pidÃ©miologie et de santÃ© publique
In order to improve the management of a community based nutrition program in the catchment area of Ruli District Hospital in Rwanda, we carried out a nutrition survey to determine the risk factors for childhood malnutrition in the area. Identifying the groups of children at risk of malnutrition and their risk factors allows the community nutrition workers to target the children who require close monitoring, and assists in the development of key messages for educational nutrition training.The prevalence of the three forms of malnutrition was estimated by using the Z-scores height for age, weight for age and weight for height with NCHS/OMS/2000 reference. Logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for malnutrition.Our findings show that children from 12-35 months of age are at greatest risk of malnutrition. Risk factors for wasting include: low monthly income of the household, concurrent illness of the child and a household that does not practice breeding. Risk factors for underweight include: child being greater than 12 months of age, mother of the child being pregnant and history of malnutrition in the household. Finally, risk factors for stunting include the absence of a mosquito net in the household, an insufficient number of working adults in the household, the child being greater than 12 months of age and a household managed by a man alone or by an orphan.Community based growth monitoring must focus its attention on the children from nine to 35 months of age. Children less than nine months of age are generally followed by the health centers through the immunization program, and the older children are generally followed in the child minder schools that need to be promoted in all the cells. Community messages must focus on the identified risk factors of malnutrition, and a positive deviance approach must be introduced in the entire zone.
Can shoulder arthroplasty restore the range of motion in activities of daily living? A prospective 3D video motion analysis study. - Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
There are limited data how total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) improves shoulder function during activities of daily living (ADL). The hypothesis of this study was that the range of motion (ROM) in ADL gets back to normal after TSA.We examined 13 patients before they received TSA for osteoarthritis and 6 months postoperatively with a 3D motion video analysis during 3 ADL and compared them with a control group without any shoulder pathology.Comparing the TSA status preoperatively and postoperatively resulted in a significant increase of the mean values of the ROMs in the ADL in all planes (P < .05). When the postoperative ROM was compared with the controls, TSA was able to restore the ROM in all planes except for abduction in 2 of 3 ADL. The patients were not able to use their maximum active abduction during the course of the ADL.TSA improves the ROM in ADL, but it cannot return completely to normal in abduction after 6 months.This is not related to limitations of active or passive ROM but may be due to impaired proprioception or pathologic movement patterns, or both.
New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer. - The Medical journal of Malaysia
Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008.
What factors influence suboptimal ward care in the acutely ill ward patient? - Australian critical care : official journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
As technological developments continue to offer patients more health care choices patient acuity increases. Patients that traditionally would have been cared for in a critical care environment are increasingly located on general wards. This change impacts on the acute care sector in a number of ways. Patients who are inpatients have more complex problems and a greater number of co-morbidities and are therefore more likely to suffer physiological deterioration. Procedures requiring inpatient stays are often more complex and associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. As patient acuity has increased research has highlighted that the care of the acutely ill ward patient is suboptimal. Suboptimal care implies a lack of knowledge regarding the significance of clinical findings relating to dysfunction of airway, breathing and circulation. This paper analyses the literature on the factors that contribute to suboptimal ward care of the acutely ill patient. It uses the categories proposed by McQuillan et al. (1998) in relation to suboptimal ward care in an attempt to develop a conceptual analysis of the factors that influence suboptimal ward care and acutely ill ward patients. Thus it aims to develop and enhance practitioners' knowledge and understanding of this topic and therefore improve patient care outcomes.
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