Calle Tendal #48
Yauco PR 00698
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Quality of vision after excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-C for Salzmann nodular degeneration. - Eye & contact lens
To assess the effect of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with intraoperative mitomycin-C (MMC) on the quality of vision in patients with Salzmann nodular degeneration (SND).Thirteen eyes of 12 patients were enrolled in the study between December 2010 and March 2012. Uncorrected and best-corrected Snellen distance visual acuities were measured at every visit. Contrast sensitivity and manifest refraction were measured preoperatively, at 1 month and at 3 months. Corneal topography, Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging, VISX WaveScan, and ultrasound central corneal pachymetry were measured preoperatively and at 3 months after PTK procedure.Contrast sensitivity was statistically significantly better both at 1 month (P<0.01) and 3 months (P<0.01). Postoperatively, there was 46% increase in eyes with measurable corneal topography, 69% increase in Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging, and a 77% increase in WaveScan measurements. The third-order (P<0.01) and total corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) (P=0.01) were significantly lower postoperatively compared with the preoperative corneal aberrations measured on Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging.Significant improvement in contrast sensitivity and corneal HOAs was seen after PTK for SND. Phototherapeutic keratectomy with MMC can be considered as an effective procedure in the improvement of the quality of vision in patients with SND.
Substituted 3â€‘acylâ€‘2â€‘phenylaminoâ€‘1,4â€‘naphthoquinonesÂ intercalate into DNA and cause genotoxicity through the increasedÂ generation of reactive oxygen species culminating in cell death. - Molecular medicine reports
Naphthoquinones interact with biological systems by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and the antitumor activity of 3â€‘acylâ€‘2â€‘phenylaminoâ€‘1,4â€‘naphthoquinones (DPB1â€‘DPB9) were evaluated in the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line and in male Ehrlich tumorâ€‘bearing Balb/c mice. DPB4 was the most cytotoxic derivative against MCF7 cells (EC50 15Â ÂµM) and DPB6 was the least cytotoxic one (EC50 56Â ÂµM). The 1,4â€‘naphthoquinone derivatives were able to cause DNA damage and promote DNA fragmentation as shown by the plasmid DNA cleavage assay (FII form). In addition, 1,4â€‘naphthoquinone derivatives possibly interacted with DNA as intercalating agents, which was demonstrated by the changes caused in the fluorescence of the DNAâ€‘ethidium bromide complexes. Cell death of MCF7 cells induced by 3â€‘acylâ€‘2â€‘phenylaminoâ€‘1,4â€‘naphthoquinones was mostly due to apoptosis. The DNA fragmentation and subsequent apoptosis may be correlated to the redox potential of the 1,4â€‘naphthoquinone derivatives that, once present in the cell nucleus, led to the increased generation of ROS. Finally, certain 1,4â€‘naphthoquinone derivatives and particularly DPB4 significantly inhibited the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumors in mice (73%).
Antiproliferative effects of phenylaminonaphthoquinones are increased by ascorbate and associated with the appearance of a senescent phenotype in human bladder cancer cells. - Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Quinone-containing molecules have been developed against cancer mainly for their redox cycling ability leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. We have previously shown that donor-acceptor phenylaminonaphthoquinones are biologically active against a panel of cancer cells. In this report, we explored the mechanisms involved in cancer cell growth inhibition caused by two phenylaminonaphthoquinones, namely Q7 and Q9, with or without ascorbate (ASC). The results show that Q7 and Q9 are both redox cyclers able to form ROS, which strongly inhibit the proliferation of T24 cells. Q9 was a better redox cycler than Q7 because of marked stabilization of the semiquinone radical species arising from its reduction by ascorbate. Indeed, ASC dramatically enhances the inhibitory effect of Q9 on cell proliferation. Q9 plus ASC impairs the cell cycle, causing a decrease in the number of cells in the G2/M phase without involving other cell cycle regulating key proteins. Moreover, Q9 plus ASC influences the MAPK signaling pathways, provoking the appearance of a senescent cancer cell phenotype and ultimately leading to necrotic-like cell death. Because cellular senescence limits the replicative capacity of cells, our results suggest that induction of senescence may be exploited as a basis for new approaches to cancer therapy.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inhibition of cell proliferation and migration by oxidative stress from ascorbate-driven juglone redox cycling in human bladder-derived T24 cells. - Biochemical and biophysical research communications
The effects of juglone on T24 cells were assessed in the presence and absence of ascorbate. The EC(50) value for juglone at 24 h decreased from 28.5 Î¼M to 6.3 Î¼M in the presence of ascorbate. In juglone-treated cells, ascorbate increased ROS formation (4-fold) and depleted GSH (65%). N-acetylcysteine or catalase restricted the juglone/ascorbate-mediated effects, highlighting the role of oxidative stress in juglone cytotoxicity. Juglone alone or associated with ascorbate did not cause caspase-3 activation or PARP cleavage, suggesting necrosis-like cell death. DNA damage and the mild ER stress caused by juglone were both enhanced by ascorbate. In cells treated with juglone (1-5 Î¼M), a concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation was observed. Ascorbate did not impair cell proliferation but its association with juglone led to a clonogenic death state. The motility of ascorbate-treated cells was not affected. Juglone slightly restricted motility, but cells lost their ability to migrate most noticeably when treated with juglone plus ascorbate. We postulate that juglone kills cells by a necrosis-like mechanism inhibiting cell proliferation and the motility of T24 cells. These effects are enhanced in the presence of ascorbate.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The stress responsive and morphologically regulated hsp90 gene from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is essential to cell viability. - BMC microbiology
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The response to heat shock is involved in pathogenesis, as this pathogen switches from mycelium to yeast forms in a temperature dependent fashion that is essential to establish infection. HSP90 is a molecular chaperone that helps in the folding and stabilization of selected polypeptides. HSP90 family members have been shown to present important roles in fungi, especially in the pathogenic species, as an immunodominant antigen and also as a potential antifungal therapeutic target.In this work, we decided to further study the Pbhsp90 gene, its expression and role in cell viability because it plays important roles in fungal physiology and pathogenesis. Thus, we have sequenced a Pbhsp90 cDNA and shown that this gene is present on the genome as a single copy. We have also confirmed its preferential expression in the yeast phase and its overexpression during dimorphic transition and oxidative stress. Treatment of the yeast with the specific HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and radicicol inhibited growth at 2 and 10 microM, respectively.The data confirm that the Pbhsp90 gene encodes a morphologically regulated and stress-responsive protein whose function is essential to cell viability of this pathogen. This work also enforces the potential of HSP90 as a target for antifungal therapies, since the use of HSP90 inhibitors is lethal to the P. brasiliensis yeast cells in a dose-responsive manner.
Pharmacology of the potent new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent aceclofenac. - Arzneimittel-Forschung
Aceclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl) amine]phenylacetoxyacetic acid; CAS 89796-99-6) is a new orally effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent of the phenylacetic acid group which showed remarkable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Hence, aceclofenac possesses a potent inhibitory activity in several models of acute and chronic inflammation in rodents, and resembles indometacin and diclofenac in its pharmacodynamic profile, being superior to naproxen and phenylbutazone. In addition, aceclofenac was found to be highly active against sodium urate-induced synovitis in dogs and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats, both prophylactically and therapeutically. The analgesic effect of aceclofenac on the pain elicited by chemical and mechanical stimuli was nearly equal to or slightly better than that of indometacin and diclofenac. Fever induced by brewer's yeast injection in rats was also markedly suppressed by aceclofenac. In contrast, the acute gastric ulcerogenic activity of aceclofenac was about 2, 4 and 7-fold lesser than that of naproxen, diclofenac, or indometacin, respectively. As a consequence of its high anti-inflammatory activity and lower potential for gastric damage aceclofenac exhibited the most favourable therapeutic ratio in comparison with indometacin, diclofenac, naproxen, and phenylbutazone. These data indicate that aceclofenac could be a potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent with a wide margin of safety in clinical practice.
Pharmaco-toxicological effects of acetaminophen in rodents. Battery of tests to screen potential analgesic acetaminophen derivatives. - Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology
The pharmacological effects of acute oral administration of acetaminophen have been extensively evaluated in rodents. Using this drug as reference compound we have also standardized several pharmaco-toxociological tests in order to select new analgesic-antipyretic acetaminophen derivatives. According to the results obtained in this work, the following battery of assays is proposed to screen these compounds: a) pharmacological: antipyretic activity against Brewer's yeast-induced pyresis in rats; analgesic activity against chemical-induced writhings in mice and paw pressure test in rats; b) toxicological: oral acute toxicity in mice with and without phenobarbital pretreatment; determination of SGOT and SGPT activities as well as total bilirubin in mice. The usefulness of this procedure in the evaluation of drug effects is also considered.
DNA damage and inhibition of akt pathway in mcf-7 cells and ehrlich tumor in mice treated with 1,4-naphthoquinones in combination with ascorbate. - Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the antitumor mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones and ascorbate. Juglone, phenylaminonaphthoquinone-7, and 9 (Q7/Q9) were evaluated for effects on CT-DNA and DNA of cancer cells. Evaluations in MCF-7 cells are DNA damage, ROS levels, viability, and proliferation. Proteins from MCF-7 lysates were immunoblotted for verifying PARP integrity, Î³H2AX, and pAkt. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The same markers of molecular toxicity were assessed in vivo. The naphthoquinones intercalate into CT-DNA and caused oxidative cleavage, which is increased in the presence of ascorbate. Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Effects were potentiated by ascorbate. No PARP cleavage was observed. Naphthoquinones, combined with ascorbate, caused phosphorylation of H2AX and inhibited pAkt. ROS were enhanced in MCF-7 cells, particularly by the juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate. Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by juglone, Q7, or Q9, but the potentiating effect of ascorbate was reproduced in vivo only in the cases of juglone and Q7, which caused up to 60% inhibition of tumor and the largest extension of survival. Juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate caused enhanced ROS and DNA damage and inhibited pAkt also in Ehrlich carcinoma cells.
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