Dr. Michael  Agus  Md image

Dr. Michael Agus Md

300 Longwood Ave Main 11 South
Boston MA 02115
617 555-5849
Medical School: University Of Pennsylvania School Of Medicine - 1995
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 157152
NPI: 1952382301
Taxonomy Codes:
208000000X 2080P0203X 2080P0205X

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Triage of Intermediate-Care Patients in Pediatric Hospitals. - Hospital pediatrics
Hospitalized children have a wide range of acuity and risk of decompensation. The objective of this study was to determine where pediatric patients are triaged when they present to pediatric hospitals needing intense monitoring and nursing care, but do not require invasive monitoring or technology.We completed a telephone survey of pediatric hospitals in the United States with at least 2 non-neonatal pediatric wards and at least 50 acute inpatient beds. The survey consisted of a brief scripted portrayal of 6 hypothetical patients who may be admitted to a hospital's general floor, ICU, or an intermediate care unit (IMCU). The scenarios included severe asthma, bronchiolitis, croup, diabetic ketoacidosis, and patients dependent on home ventilation via noninvasive interface or tracheostomy. The hospital bed coordinator or emergency department charge nurse was asked where each hypothetical patient would be admitted in their hospital.A total192 hospitals met inclusion criteria and 164 hospitals (85%) responded. For all of the scenarios, most of the institutions triaged them to the PICU. Twenty-eight (17%) of the responding institutions triaged at least 1 of the patient scenarios to an IMCU. The presence of an IMCU decreased triage to the ICU for all scenarios when comparing hospitals with and without an IMCU (P < .001).Inpatient triage practices among pediatric hospitals vary widely for patients who require intense nursing or frequent monitoring due to specific acute illnesses or respiratory technologies. Institutions that have an IMCU available are less likely to send these patients to the ICU.Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Practice Patterns in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Results of a Workforce Survey. - Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
To obtain current data on practice patterns of the U.S. pediatric critical care medicine workforce.Membership of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Critical Care and individuals certified by the American Board of Pediatrics in pediatric critical care medicine.All active members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Critical Care, and nonduplicative individuals certified by the American Board of Pediatrics in pediatric critical care medicine, were classified as eligible to participate in this electronically administered workforce survey.Data were extracted by a doctorate-level research professional. Extracted data included demographic information, work environment, number of hours worked, training, clinical responsibilities, work satisfaction and burnout, and plans to leave the practice of pediatric critical care medicine.Of 1,857 individuals contacted, 923 completed the survey (49.7%). The majority of respondents were white, male, non-Hispanic, university-employed, and taught residents. Respondents who worked full time were on clinical intensive care service for a median of 15 wk/yr and responsible for a median of 13 ICU beds, working a median of 60 hr/wk. Total night call responsibility was a median of 60 nights/yr; about half of respondents indicated night call was in-hospital. Fewer than half were engaged in basic science or clinical research. Compared with earlier data, there was minimal change in work hours and proportion of time devoted to research, but there was an increase in the proportion of female pediatric critical care medicine physicians.These data provide a description of the typical intensivist and a snapshot of the current pediatric critical care medicine workforce, which may be experiencing a mild-to-moderate undersupply. The results are useful for assessing the current workforce and valuable for future planning.
Tight Glycemic Control With Insulin Does Not Affect Skeletal Muscle Degradation During the Early Postoperative Period Following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. - Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
Critical illness is associated with significant catabolism, and persistent protein loss correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. Insulin is a potent anticatabolic hormone; high-dose insulin decreases skeletal muscle protein breakdown in critically ill pediatric surgical patients. However, insulin's effect on protein catabolism when given at clinically utilized doses has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effect of postoperative tight glycemic control and clinically dosed insulin on skeletal muscle degradation in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Secondary analysis of a two-center, prospective randomized trial comparing tight glycemic control with standard care. Randomization was stratified by study center.Children 0-36 months who were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.In the tight glycemic control arm, insulin was titrated to maintain blood glucose between 80 and 110 mg/dL. Patients in the control arm received standard care. Skeletal muscle breakdown was quantified by a ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to urinary creatinine.A total of 561 patients were included: 281 in the tight glycemic control arm and 280 receiving standard care. There was no difference in 3-methylhistidine to creatinine between groups (tight glycemic control, 249 ± 127 vs standard care, 253 ± 112, mean ± SD in μmol/g; p = 0.72). In analyses restricted to the patients in tight glycemic control arm, higher 3-methylhistidine to creatinine correlated with younger age, as well as lower weight, weight-for-age z score, length, and body surface area (p < 0.005 for each) and lower postoperative day 3 serum creatinine (r = -0.17; p = 0.02). Sex, prealbumin, and albumin were not associated with 3-methylhistidine to creatinine. During urine collection, 245 patients (87%) received insulin. However, any insulin exposure did not impact 3-methylhistidine to creatinine (t test, p = 0.45), and there was no dose-dependent effect of insulin on 3-methylhistidine to creatinine (r = -0.03; p = 0.60).Although high-dose insulin has an anabolic effect in experimental conditions, at doses necessary to achieve normoglycemia, insulin appears to have no discernible impact on skeletal muscle degradation in critically ill pediatric cardiac surgical patients.
Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat? - Critical care (London, England)
Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.
The relationship between TSH and systemic inflammation in extremely preterm newborns. - Endocrine
Elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels in critically ill extremely premature infants have been attributed to transient hypothyroidism of prematurity or non-thyroidal illness syndrome. We evaluated the hypothesis that relatively high TSH levels in the first 2 postnatal weeks follow recovery from systemic inflammation, similar to non-thyroidal illness syndrome. The study was conducted in 14 Neonatal Intensive Care Units and approved by each individual Institutional Review Board. We measured the concentrations of TSH and 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood spots obtained on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14. We then evaluated the temporal relationships between hyperthyrotropinemia (HTT), defined as a TSH concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age and postnatal day, and elevated levels of inflammation-related proteins. 880 newborns less than 28 weeks of gestation were included. Elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins during the first or second week did not precede day-14 HTT. Systemic inflammation on day 7 was associated with day-14 HTT only if inflammation persisted through the end of the 2 week period. HTT frequently accompanied elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins on the same day. The hypothesis that HTT follows recovery from severe illness, defined as preceding systemic inflammation, is weakly supported by our study. Our findings more prominently support the hypothesis that TSH conveys information about concomitant inflammation in the extremely premature newborn.
Are preterm newborns who have relative hyperthyrotropinemia at increased risk of brain damage? - Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
We sought to disentangle the contributions of hyperthyrotropinemia (an indicator of thyroid dysfunction) (HTT) and intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI) to structural and functional indicators of brain damage.We measured the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on day 14 and of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected during the first 2 postnatal weeks from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who were not considered to have hypothyroidism. We defined hyperthyrotropinemia (HTT) as a TSH concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14 and ISSI was defined as a concentration in the top quartile for gestational age of a specific inflammation-related protein on 2 separate days a week apart during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We first assessed the risk of brain damage indicators by comparing 1) neonates who had HTT to those without (regardless of ISSI) and 2) neonates with HTT only, ISSI only, or HTT+ISSI to those who were exposed to neither HTT nor ISSI.In univariable models that compared those with HTT to those without, HTT was not significantly associated with any indicator of brain damage. In models that compared HTT only, ISSI only, and HTT+ISSI to those with neither, children with ISSI only or with HTT+ISSI were at significantly higher risk of ventriculomegaly [odds ratios (ORs) 2-6], whereas those with HTT only were at significantly reduced risk of a hypoechoic lesion (ORs 0.2-0.4). Children with HTT only had a higher risk of quadriparesis and those with ISSI alone had a higher risk of hemiparesis (ORs 1.6-2.4). Elevated risk of a very low mental development score was associated with both ISSI only and HTT+ISSI, whereas a very low motor development score and microcephaly were associated with HTT+ISSI.The association of HTT with increased or decreased risk of indicators of brain damage depends on the presence or absence of ISSI.
Tight glucose control in critically ill children--a systematic review and meta-analysis. - Pediatric diabetes
It is unclear if tight glucose control (TGC) with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) can improve outcomes in critically ill children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe the benefits and risks of TGC with IIT in critically ill children and explore differences between published studies.Prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TGC with IIT in critically ill children admitted to the ICU were identified through a search of MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews as well as detailed citation review of relevant primary and review articles. RCTs of TGC with IIT in critically ill adults and preterm neonates were excluded. Data on study design and setting, sample size, incidence of hypoglycemia, incidence of acquired infection, and 30-day mortality were abstracted. Meta-analytic techniques were used for analysis of outcomes including 30-day mortality, acquired infection, and incidence of hypoglycemia.We identified four RCTs of TGC with IIT in critically ill children that included 3288 subjects. Overall, TGC with IIT did not result in a decrease in 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR): 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-1.15, p = 0.22]. TGC with IIT was associated with decrease in acquired infection (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59-0.99, p = 0.04). TGC with IIT was also associated with significant increase in hypoglycemia (OR: 6.14; 95% CI: 2.74-13.78, p < 0.001).TGC with IIT does not result in decrease in 30-day mortality, but appears to reduce acquired infection in critically ill children. However, TGC with IIT is associated with higher incidence of hypoglycemia. Large multi-center studies of TGC with IIT using continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill children are needed to determine if this strategy can definitively improve clinical outcomes in this population without increasing hypoglycemia.
Tight glycemic control after pediatric cardiac surgery in high-risk patient populations: a secondary analysis of the safe pediatric euglycemia after cardiac surgery trial. - Circulation
Our previous randomized, clinical trial showed that postoperative tight glycemic control (TGC) for children undergoing cardiac surgery did not reduce the rate of health care-associated infections compared with standard care (STD). Heterogeneity of treatment effect may exist within this population.We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis of 980 children from birth to 36 months of age at the time of cardiac surgery who were randomized to postoperative TGC or STD in the intensive care unit. Significant interactions were observed between treatment group and both neonate (age ≤30 days; P=0.03) and intraoperative glucocorticoid exposure (P=0.03) on the risk of infection. The rate and incidence of infections in subjects ≤60 days old were significantly increased in the TGC compared with the STD group (rate: 13.5 versus 3.7 infections per 1000 cardiac intensive care unit days, P=0.01; incidence: 13% versus 4%, P=0.02), whereas infections among those >60 days of age were significantly reduced in the TGC compared with the STD group (rate: 5.0 versus 14.1 infections per 1000 cardiac intensive care unit days, P=0.02; incidence: 2% versus 5%, P=0.03); the interaction of treatment group by age subgroup was highly significant (P=0.001). Multivariable logistic regression controlling for the main effects revealed that previous cardiac surgery, chromosomal anomaly, and delayed sternal closure were independently associated with increased risk of infection.This exploratory analysis demonstrated that TGC may lower the risk of infection in children >60 days of age at the time of cardiac surgery compared with children receiving STD. Meta-analyses of past and ongoing clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings before clinical practice is altered. Unique identifier: NCT00443599.© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Association between Technical Performance Scores and neurodevelopmental outcomes after congenital cardiac surgery. - The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Technical Performance Score (TPS) has been shown to have a strong association with early and late outcomes after congenital cardiac surgery, with greater morbidity and reintervention in children with major residual lesions (TPS class 3). We sought to explore the effect of TPS on the neurodevelopmental outcomes.All infants undergoing cardiac surgery, excluding those with trisomy 21, were offered neurodevelopmental testing at 1 year of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition. TPSs from the discharge echocardiograms were graded as class 1 (optimal), class 2 (minor residual), or class 3 (major residual). Multivariate regression analysis was performed using patient characteristics and preoperative variables.Neurodevelopmental testing was performed in 140 patients at a median age of 16 months. Of these, 28 (20%) had single ventricle palliation; 39 (28%) were in Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery category 4 to 6. Significant differences between the groups were found in the cognitive (P = .01) and motor (P = .05) domains, with subjects in TPS class 3 having significantly lower cognitive and motor composite scores. The scores did not vary significantly according to single ventricle versus biventricular repair or Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery categorization. In multivariate modeling, class 3 TPS remained significantly associated with a lower Bayley cognitive score (P = .02), with a trend toward a lower Bayley motor score (P = .08).We found that TPS is an independent predictor of neurodevelopmental outcomes after infant heart surgery. Future research should explore whether a structured program of intraoperative recognition and intervention on residual lesions can improve the TPS and neurodevelopmental outcomes.Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Increasing use of hypertonic saline over mannitol in the treatment of symptomatic cerebral edema in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: an 11-year retrospective analysis of mortality*. - Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
Cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis is a devastating complication with significant morbidity and mortality. This entity has traditionally been treated with mannitol, but use of 3% hypertonic saline has become an accepted alternative. We sought to assess if changes in the use of hyperosmolar therapies for treatment of cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis may have influenced mortality over the last decade.Retrospective cohort study.Patients discharged between 1999 and 2009 from 41 children's hospitals that provided data to the Pediatric Health Information System database.A total of 43,107 children (age < 19) with diagnosis codes related to diabetic ketoacidosis were identified and further classified as having cerebral edema if treated with mannitol and/or 3% hypertonic saline.None.Billing for 3% hypertonic saline and mannitol was quantified, and mortality associated with both diabetic ketoacidosis and cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis was examined. Overall mortality in diabetic ketoacidosis was 0.25% and significantly decreased (p < 0.001) over the study period, whereas the frequency of treatment with hyperosmolar agents (3.8%) was unchanged. Use of mannitol as a sole agent decreased from 98% to 49%, 3% hypertonic saline as a sole agent increased from 2% to 39%, and combined therapy increased from 0% to 10%. Use of 3% hypertonic saline alone was associated with a higher mortality than mannitol alone (adjusted odds ratio, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.01-7.26]) in patients treated for cerebral edema. Similar results were obtained after adjustment for the propensity to receive hypertonic saline (adjusted odds ratio, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.07-5.07]) and in the subset of subjects receiving mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27 [95% CI, 1.12-9.60]).Hypertonic saline has replaced mannitol as the most commonly used agent at many institutions for treatment of cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. In our analysis, however, use of hypertonic saline as a sole agent was associated with an increased risk of mortality. Recognizing the limitations of administrative data, we conclude that equipoise regarding choice of therapy for treatment of cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis should be maintained until a more definitive study is performed to guide therapy of this potentially lethal complication.

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