5239 W Woodmill Dr Suite 49
Wilmington DE 19808
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Preexercise energy drink consumption does not improve endurance cycling performance but increases lactate, monocyte, and interleukin-6 response. - Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an energy drink (ED) on cycling performance and immune-related variables. Eleven trained male cyclists (33.4 Â± 8.9 years; 81 Â± 7.6 kg; maximal VO2, 52 Â± 3.4 mlÂ·kg(-1)Â·min(-1)) consumed 500 ml of (a) ED (2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 56 g carbohydrate [CHO], and B vitamins), (b) cola matched for caffeine and CHO (CC), or (c) flavored placebo (PL: sparking water and flavoring) 50 minutes before racing in a randomized, crossover design. Performance was measured as time to complete (TTC) a 25-mile simulated road race. Blood was collected at baseline, 30 minutes after drink consumption, during exercise at miles 5 (M5), 15 (M15), and immediately (POEX) and 30 minutes (30minPO) after exercise. TTC was not different (p > 0.05) among trials (ED, 68.6 Â± 2.7; CC, 68.9 Â± 3.8; PL, 69.6 Â± 3.8 minutes). Consumption of CC and ED elicited a mild hypoglycemia elicited a mild hypoglycemia during cycling. POEX interleukin-6 (IL-6) was greatest after ED, whereas CC IL-6 was greater than PL (10.2 Â± 1.6, 6.7 Â± 0.6, and 4.8 Â± 0.7 pgÂ·ml(-1), respectively; p < 0.001). Cycling increased leukocyte number in all conditions with ED leukocyte number greater than that of PL at M15 (9.8 Â± 0.6, 8.5 Â± 0.3 Ã— 10(6) cellsÂ·mL(-1)). Energy drink induced an earlier recruitment of monocytes to the blood stream than CC. Mean fat oxidation was greater in PL compared with CC (0.43 Â± 0.06 and 0.28 Â± 0.04 gÂ·min(-1); p = 0.033) but did not differ between ED (0.32 Â± 0.06) and PL. Lactate was higher in ED compared with CC and PL at M5 and M15 (p = 0.003), but there was no significant influence of either ED or CC on performance. Carbohydrate and caffeine consumption before endurance cycling significantly increased the IL-6 release and leukocytosis, and the additional ingredients in ED seem to have further augmented these responses.
Defects in glycosylation impair satellite stem cell function and niche composition in the muscles of the dystrophic Large(myd) mouse. - Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component Î±-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina components, a loss in structural stability, and repeated cycles of muscle fiber degeneration and regeneration. The satellite cells are the key stem cells responsible for muscle repair and reside between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. In this study, we aimed to determine whether pathological changes associated with the dystroglycanopathies affect satellite cell function. In the Large(myd) mouse dystroglycanopathy model, satellite cells are present in significantly greater numbers but display reduced proliferation on their native muscle fibers in vitro, compared with wild type. However, when removed from their fiber, proliferation in culture is restored to that of wild type. Immunohistochemical analysis of Large(myd) muscle reveals alterations to the basal lamina and interstitium, including marked disorganization of laminin, upregulation of fibronectin and collagens. Proliferation and differentiation of wild-type satellite cells is impaired when cultured on substrates such as collagen and fibronectin, compared with laminins. When engrafted into irradiated tibialis anterior muscles of mdx-nude mice, wild-type satellite cells expanded on laminin contribute significantly more to muscle regeneration than those expanded on fibronectin. These results suggest that defects in Î±-dystroglycan glycosylation are associated with an alteration in the satellite cell niche, and that regenerative potential in the dystroglycanopathies may be perturbed.Copyright Â© 2012 AlphaMed Press.
Protein engineered variants of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor promote proliferation of primary human hepatocytes and in rodent liver. - Gastroenterology
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) stimulates hepatocyte DNA synthesis and protects against apoptosis; in vivo it promotes liver regeneration and reduces fibrosis. However, its therapeutic value is limited by its complex domain structure, high cost of production, instability, and poor tissue penetration due to sequestration by heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs).Using protein engineering techniques, we created a full-length form of HGF/SF (called HP21) and a form of the small, naturally occurring HGF/SF fragment, NK1 (called 1K1), which have reduced affinity for HSPG. We characterized the stability and proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of these variants in primary human hepatocytes and in rodents.Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that 1K1 and NK1 were more stable than the native, full-length protein. All 4 forms of HGF/SF induced similar levels of DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes; 1K1 and NK1 required heparin, an HSPG analogue, for full agonistic activity. All the proteins reduced levels of Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis, reducing the activity of caspase-3/7 and cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. 1K1 was more active than NK1 in rodents; in healthy mice, 1K1 significantly increased hepatocyte DNA synthesis, and in mice receiving carbon tetrachloride, it reduced fibrosis. In rats, after 70% partial hepatectomy, daily administration of 1K1 for 5 days significantly increased liver mass and the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index compared with mice given NK1.1K1, an engineered form of the small, naturally occurring HGF/SF fragment NK1, has reduced affinity for HSPG and exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic effects in cultured hepatocytes. In rodents, 1K1 has antifibrotic effects and promotes liver regeneration. The protein has better stability and is easier to produce than HGF/SF and might be developed as a therapeutic for acute and chronic liver disease.Copyright Â© 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortisol infusion decreases renin, but not PGHS-2, EP2, or EP4 mRNA expression in the kidney of the fetal sheep at days 109-116. - Pediatric research
Renal prostaglandins (PG), renin, and cortisol are necessary for normal kidney development and function during fetal life. We examined the effects of cortisol infusion before completion of nephrogenesis (d 109-116 gestation; 2.0-3.0 mg hydrocortisone succinate/24 h) on the renal mRNA expression of PGHS-2, the PGE(2) receptors, EP(2) and EP(4), and renin in fetal sheep. Cortisol infusion raised plasma cortisol levels to 42.8 +/- 6.0 nmol/L compared with saline infusion levels of 1.5 +/- 0.5 nmol/L (p < 0.001), but had no effect on fetal body weight, proportional kidney mass, or blood gases. Cortisol decreased significantly the relative expression of renin mRNA (saline: 0.93 +/- 0.06 units; cortisol: 0.32 +/- 0.03 units, p < 0.05), however it had no effect upon the expression of PGHS-2, EP(2), or EP(4) mRNA in fetal sheep kidney. Although there is substantial evidence that PGE(2) acting through either the EP(2) or EP(4) receptor stimulates renin synthesis in the adult kidney, our results have demonstrated that before the completion of nephrogenesis, cortisol down-regulation of renin mRNA expression is independent of any change in the expression of PGHS-2, EP(2), or EP(4) mRNA expression. During nephrogenesis, the insensitivity of PGHS-2, EP(2), and EP(4) expression to down-regulation by cortisol may permit continued PG regulation of renal development and urine formation.
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