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[Fighting malpractice and uncooperative behaviour in the "Swiss Archive for Veterinary Science" 1816-2016]. - Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde
Already back in the 18th century, the treatment of sick animals was reserved for licensed veterinarians in most Cantons. Various articles from the first 100 years of the Swiss Archives for Veterinary Science show that over and over again unqualified people offered their services to livestock owners. A detailed article from the year 1843 on the resulting situation in the Canton of Berne and the need for corrective measures are presented. At the beginning of the 20th century articles about malpractice among veterinarians, especially regarding the trade of medication predominate.
Drosophila DDX3/Belle Exerts Its Function Outside of the Wnt/Wingless Signaling Pathway. - PloS one
The helicases human DDX3 and Drosophila Belle (Bel) are part of a well-defined subfamily of the DEAD-box helicases. Individual subfamily-members perform a myriad of functions in nuclear and cytosolic RNA metabolism. It has also been reported that DDX3X is involved in cell signaling, including IFN-Î± and IFN-Î² inducing pathways upon viral infection as well as in Wnt signaling. Here we used a collection of EMS-induced bel alleles recovered from a Wingless (Wg) suppressor screen to analyze the role of the Drosophila homolog of DDX3 in Wg/Wnt signaling. These EMS alleles, as well as a P-element induced null allele and RNAi-mediated knock down of bel, all suppressed the phenotype of ectopic Wg signaling in the eye. However, they did not affect the expression of known Wg target genes like senseless, Distalless or wingful/Notum. Ectopic Wg signaling in eye imaginal discs induces apoptosis by increasing grim expression. Mutations in bel revert grim expression to wild-type levels. Together, these results indicate that Bel does not function as a core component in the Drosophila Wg pathway, and that mutations affecting its helicase function suppress the effects of ectopic Wg signaling downstream of the canonical pathway.
Bendopnea and risk of adverse clinical outcomes in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure. - American heart journal
Recently, the symptom of bendopnea, that is, shortness of breath when bending forwards such as when putting on shoes, has been described in heart failure patients and found to be associated with higher ventricular filling pressures, particularly in the setting of low cardiac index. However, it is not known whether bendopnea is associated with clinical outcomes.In a prospective convenience sample of 179 patients followed in our heart failure disease management clinic, we determined the presence of bendopnea at the time of enrollment and ascertained clinical outcomes through 1 year of follow-up. We performed univariate and stepwise multivariable modeling to test the association of bendopnea with clinical outcomes.Bendopnea was present in 32 of 179 (18%) subjects. At 1 year, those with versus without bendopnea were at increased risk of the composite endpoint of death, heart failure admission, inotrope initiation, left ventricular assist device implantation, or cardiac transplantation in univariate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, P < .05) but not multivariable (HR 1.9, P = .11) analysis. Bendopnea was more strongly associated with short-term outcomes including heart failure admission at 3 months in both univariate (HR 3.1, P < .004) and multivariable (HR 2.5, P = .04) analysis.Bendopnea was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in ambulatory patients with heart failure, particularly heart failure admission at 3 months.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Physical Activity and Adiposity-related Inflammation: The MESA. - Medicine and science in sports and exercise
Physical activity is associated with decreased adiposity-related inflammation in adults. Whether this association is independent of central obesity is unknown but important for understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing cardiometabolic disease risk through physical activity. This study examined whether associations of physical activity and obesity-related inflammatory markers were independent of central adiposity.Between 2002 and 2005, 1970 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis completed detailed health history and physical activity questionnaires, underwent physical measurements including computed tomography to quantify abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and measurements of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin. Statistical analyses included analysis of covariance and multivariable-adjusted regression.The mean (range) age of participants was 64.7 (55-84) years and 50% were female. After adjustment for age and sex, and compared to the lowest quartile, inflammatory markers in the highest quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 16% higher for adiponectin and 30%, 26% and 9% lower for leptin, interleukin-6, and resistin, respectively (p<0.05 for all). In linear regression adjusted for demographics, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, glomerular filtration rate, renin and aldosterone, each standard deviation increment of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with significantly higher levels of adiponectin (Î²=0.04) and lower levels of leptin (Î²=-0.06), interleukin-6 (Î²=-0.08), and resistin (Î²=-0.05, p<0.05 for all). The associations with leptin, interleukin-6, and resistin were independent of total and central adiposity (p<0.05), whereas the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiponectin was attenuated by central adiposity (p>0.05). There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity or sex.Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a more favorable profile of inflammatory markers, independent of relevant cardiometabolic disease risk factors including central obesity.
Biomechanical Response of the Infant Head to Shaking - An Experimental Investigation. - Journal of neurotrauma
Controversy exists regarding whether violent shaking is harmful to infants in the absence of impact. In this study, our objective was to characterize the biomechanical response of the infant head during shaking through use of an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (commonly referred to as a 'crash test dummy' or infant surrogate) representing a human infant and having improved biofidelity. A series of tests were conducted to simulate violent shaking of an infant surrogate. The Aprica 2.5 infant surrogate represented a 5th percentile Japanese newborn. A 50th percentile Japanese adult male was recruited to shake the infant surrogate in the sagittal plane. Tri-axial linear accelerometers positioned at the center of mass and apex of the head recorded accelerations during shaking. Five shaking test series, each 3 to 4 seconds in duration, were conducted. Outcome measures derived from accelerometer recordings were examined for trends. Head and neck kinematics were characterized during shaking events; mean peak neck flexion was 1.98 radians (113 degrees) and mean peak neck extension was 2.16 radians (123 degrees). The maximum angular acceleration across all test series was 13,260 radians/second2. Peak angular velocity was 105.7 radians/second. Acceleration pulse durations ranged from 72.1 milliseconds to 168.2 milliseconds. Using a biofidelic infant surrogate, we found higher angular acceleration and higher angular velocity than previously reported during infant surrogate shaking experiments. Findings highlight the importance of surrogate biofidelity when investigating shaking.
Grade II meningiomas and Gamma Knife radiosurgery: analysis of success and failure to improve treatment paradigm. - Journal of neurosurgery
OBJECTIVE Grade II meningiomas, which currently account for 25% of all meningiomas, are subject to multiple recurrences throughout the course of the disease and represent a challenge for the neurosurgeon. Radiosurgery is increasingly performed for the treatment of Grade II meningiomas and is quite efficient in controlling relapses locally at the site of the lesion, but it cannot prevent margin relapses. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the technical parameters involved in producing marginal relapses and to optimize loco-marginal control to improve therapeutic strategy. METHODS Eighteen patients presenting 58 lesions were treated by Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) between 2010 and 2015 in Hopital de la PitiÃ©-SalpÃªtriÃ¨re. The median patient age was 68 years (25%-75% interval: 61-72 years), and the sex ratio (M/F) was 13:5. The median delay between surgery and first GKRS was 3 years. Patients were classified as having Grade II meningioma using World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 criteria. The tumor growth rate was computed by comparing 2 volumetric measurements before treatment. After GKRS, iterative MRI, performed every 6 months, detected a relapse if tumor volume increased by more than 20%. Patterns of relapse were defined as being local, marginal, or distal. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between criterion and potential risk factors was tested by the log-rank test and univariable Cox model. RESULTS The median follow-up was 36 months (range 8-57 months). During this period, 3 patients presented with a local relapse, 5 patients with a marginal relapse, and 7 patients with a distal relapse. Crude local control was 84.5%. The local control actuarial rate was 89% at 1 year and 71% at 3 years. The marginal control actuarial rate was 81% at 1 year and 74% at 2 years. The distal control actuarial rate was 100% at 1 year, 81% at 2 years, and 53% at 3 years. Median distal control was 38 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% at 1 year, 36% at 2 years, and 23% at 3 years. Median PFS was 18 months. Lesions treated with a minimum radiation dose of â‰¤ 12 Gy had significantly more local relapses than those treated with a dose > 12 Gy (p = 0.04) in univariate analysis. Marginal control was significantly influenced by tumor growth rate, with a lower growth rate being highly associated with improved marginal control (p = 0.002). There was a trend toward a relationship between dose and marginal control, but it was not significant (p = 0.09). PFS was significantly associated with delay between first surgery and GKRS (p = 0.03). The authors noticed few complications with no sequelae. CONCLUSIONS In order to optimize loco-marginal control, radiosurgical treatment should require a minimum dose of > 12 Gy and an extended target volume along the dural insertion. Ideally, these parameters should correspond to the aggressiveness of the lesion, based on genetic features of the tumor.
The relative influence of hematocrit and red blood cell velocity on oxygen transport from capillaries to tissue. - Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
Oxygen transport to parenchymal cells occurs mainly at the microvascular level, and depends on convective red blood cell (RBC) flux, which is proportional in an individual capillary to the product of capillary hematocrit and red blood cell velocity. This study investigates the relative influence of these two factors on tissue oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ).A simple analytical model is used to quantify the respective influences of hematocrit, RBC velocity and flow on tissue oxygenation around capillaries. Predicted tissue PO2 levels are compared with a detailed computational model.Hematocrit is shown to have a larger influence on tissue PO2 than RBC velocity. The effect of RBC velocity increases with distance from the arterioles. Good agreement between analytical and numerical results is obtained and the discrepancies are explained. Significant dependence of mass transfer coefficients on RBC velocity at low hematocrit is demonstrated.For a given RBC flux in a capillary, the PO2 in the surrounding tissue increases with increasing hematocrit, as a consequence of decreasing intravascular resistance to diffusive oxygen transport from RBCs to tissue. These results contribute to understanding the effects of blood flow changes on oxygen transport, such as occur in functional hyperemia in the brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with markers of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in black and white community-dwelling adults. - Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin classically known for its role in calcium absorption and bone health. Growing evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. However, prior studies examining the association of vitamin D with metabolic risk factors had relatively low representation of individuals of black race, limiting their ability to characterize associations of vitamin D and parameters of metabolic health in black vs. white individuals.We examined associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with markers of inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), insulin sensitivity (adiponectin, resistin, HOMA-IR), and obesity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference) in 1,042 participants from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a large national cohort of black and white adults 45 years or older.In unadjusted analyses, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with higher IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations; lower adiponectin concentrations; higher HOMA-IR; and higher BMI and waist circumference (P<0.05 for all). After adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle, and laboratory variables, lower 25(OH) D concentrations remained associated with lower adiponectin concentrations, higher IL-6 concentrations, higher HOMA-IR, and higher BMI and waist circumference (P <0.05 for all). The magnitude of these associations did not differ by race (Pinteraction>0.1).Lower 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with disturbances in metabolic health in both blacks and whites. Whether correcting vitamin D deficiency could offer a beneficial therapy for additional disease prevention requires further study.
A soft-tissue preserving method for evaluating the impact of posterior tibial slope on kinematics during cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A validation study. - The Knee
The reconstructed posterior tibial slope (PTS) plays a significant role in restoring knee kinematics in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. However, conventional methods for the investigation of PTS can be limited by sample size or prone to errors due to damages to the bone and/or soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel method for the evaluation of the effects of PTS on knee kinematics.Seven computer-assisted cruciate-retaining TKAs were performed by two surgeons on healthy cadaveric knees. The implanted tibial baseplates allowed precise and easy modification of the PTS in situ. Knee kinematics were evaluated during passive full range of motion test. The evaluation was performed three times at each of the five PTSs in the order of 10Â°, seven degrees, four degrees, one degree, and back to ten degrees. The variability of the repeated measurements, inter-surgeon variation of the data, and test reproducibility were investigated.The test method was shown to be highly repeatable (low root-mean-squared errors) and has low sensitivity to surgeon variability (ANOVA). No statistical difference was found in the knee kinematics between the first and last measurements at 10Â° PTS (paired t-test).The results suggested that the developed method can be used to investigate the impact of PTS on knee kinematics without disrupting the soft-tissue environment of the knee. The use of the novel tibial baseplate allowed for adjusting the PTS without re-cutting the tibia and removing the components. The method may be applied to improve the future investigation of PTS.Copyright Ã‚Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Assessment of the scope and practice of evaluation among medical donation programs. - Globalization and health
Medical donation programs for drugs, other medical products, training and other supportive services can improve access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and provide emergency and disaster relief. The scope and extent to which medical donation programs evaluate their impact on recipients and health systems is not well documented.We conducted a survey of the member organizations of the Partnership for Quality Medical Donations (PQMD), a global alliance of non-profit and corporate organizations, to identify evaluations conducted in conjunction with donation programs.Twenty-five out of the 36 PQMD organizations that were members at the time of the survey participated in the study, for a response rate of 69Â %. PQMD members provided information on 34 of their major medical donation programs. Half of the donation programs reported conducting trainings as a part of their donation program. Twenty-six (76Â %) programs reported that they conduct routine monitoring of their donation programs. Less than 30Â % of donation programs were evaluated for their impact on health. Lack of technical staff and lack of funding were reported as key barriers to conducting impact evaluations.Member organizations of PQMD provide a broad range of medical donations, targeting a wide range of public health issues and events. While some level of monitoring and evaluation was conducted in nearly 80Â % of the donation programs, a program's impact was infrequently evaluated. Opportunities exist to develop consistent metrics for medical donation programs, develop a common framework for impact evaluations, and advocate for data collection and analysis plans that collect meaningful metrics.
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