2402 S Miami Blvd Ste 108
Durham NC 27703
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: 2006-01823
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Children's Impact on Adults' Substance Use Problem Awareness and Treatment Optimism: The Role of Harm. - Journal of drug education
Substance abuse is associated with a host of harmful consequences to the substance user as well as other individuals and society as a whole. Although harm is an integral component of substance abuse, there is a dearth of research that investigates the relationship between harm and substance use problems. The goal of this study was to explore recovering substance users' retrospective perceptions of harm caused to self and others during periods of substance abuse and the resulting association with the development of problem awareness and treatment perspectives. The present study found that perceptions of harming children demonstrated a significant impact on adults' substance use problem awareness and treatment optimism. Perceived harm caused to a child during periods of substance abuse was associated with increased substance use problem awareness and treatment optimism. Findings suggest that harming children as a consequence of adult substance abuse may play an impactful role on adults' recovery process. Implications for future research are discussed.Â© The Author(s) 2015.
A Cross Cultural Comparison of Disability and Symptomatology Associated with CFS. - International journal of psychology and behavioral sciences
Few studies have compared symptomatology and functional differences experienced by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) across cultures. The current study compared patients with CFS from the United States (US) to those from the United Kingdom (UK) across areas of functioning, symptomatology, and illness onset characteristics. Individuals in each sample met criteria for CFS as defined by Fukuda et al. (1994). These samples were compared on two measures of disability and impairment, the DePaul Symptom Questionnarie (DSQ) and the Medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). Results revealed that the UK sample was significantly more impaired in terms of mental health and role emotional functioning, as well as specific symptoms of pain, neurocognitive difficulties, and immune manifestations. In addition, the UK sample was more likely to be working rather than on disability. Individuals in the US sample reported more difficulties falling asleep, more frequently reported experiencing a sudden illness onset (within 24 hours), and more often reported that the cause of illness was primarily due to physical causes. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in illness characteristics across individuals with CFS in the US and the UK, and this has implications for the comparability of research findings across these two countries.
Youth with Sickle Cell Disease: Genetic and Sexual Health Education Needs. - American journal of health behavior
Assess the need for and interest in a sexual health and sickle cell disease (SCD) inheritance educational program for youth with SCD.Using a cross-sectional approach, qualitative data were collected during interviews of youth with SCD between ages 11-19 years from an urban hospital. Inductive and emergent coding was used to identify themes. Frequencies were recorded and analyzed.Thirty-five youth patients were approached; 20 (57%) consented and completed interviews. Half of the participants were adolescent girls. The mean age was 16.9Â±1.8 years (range 13-19). Of the 20 participants, 100% expressed interest in SCD genetic counseling and/or posed questions regarding SCD inheritance. Nineteen (95%) demonstrated deficits in sexual health knowledge and/or requested sexual health education. Seventeen (85%) actively engaged with educational materials. Twelve (60%) reported engaging in sexual activity, 7 (35%) in risky behaviors, and 3 (15%) reported past sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis.Youth with SCD demonstrated limited knowledge regarding sexual health and inheritance of SCD. Topics like information-seeking, limited knowledge, and need for social skills training provide evidence for the creation of an educational intervention for this vulnerable population. This program shows initial feasibility for youth with SCD.
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers. - Current neuropharmacology
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. Hurdles to establishing consensus to achieve accurate evaluation of patients with ME continue, fueled by poor agreement about case definitions, slow progress in development of standardized diagnostic approaches, and issues surrounding research priorities. Because there are other medical problems, such as early MS and Parkinson's Disease, which have some similar clinical presentations, it is critical to accurately diagnose ME to make a differential diagnosis. In this article, we explore and summarize advances in the physiological and neurological approaches to understanding, diagnosing, and treating ME. We identify key areas and approaches to elucidate the core and secondary symptom clusters in ME so as to provide some practical suggestions in evaluation of ME for clinicians and researchers. This review, therefore, represents a synthesis of key discussions in the literature, and has important implications for a better understanding of ME, its biological markers, and diagnostic criteria. There is a clear need for more longitudinal studies in this area with larger data sets, which correct for multiple testing.
Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers. - Journal of addictive behaviors, therapy & rehabilitation
Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome versus Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease. - Fatigue : biomedicine, health & behavior
The Institute of Medicine has recommended a change in the name and criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), renaming the illness Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). The new SEID case definition requires substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre-illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, post-exertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance.In the current study, samples were generated through several different methods and were used to compare this new case definition to previous case definitions for CFS, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME-ICC), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), as well as a case definition developed through empirical methods.We used a cross-sectional design with samples from tertiary care settings, a biobank sample, and other forums. 796 patients from the US, Great Britain, and Norway completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire.Findings indicated that the SEID criteria identified 88% of participants in the samples analyzed, which is comparable to the 92% that met the Fukuda criteria. The SEID case definition was compared to a four item empiric criteria, and findings indicated that the four item empiric criteria identified a smaller, more functionally limited and symptomatic group of patients.The recently developed SEID criteria appears to identify a group comparable in size to the Fukuda et al. criteria, but a larger group of patients than the Canadian ME/CFS and ME criteria, and selects more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than a four item empiric criteria.
Extensional viscosity of copper nanowire suspensions in an aqueous polymer solution. - Soft matter
Suspensions of copper nanowires are emerging as new electronic inks for next-generation flexible electronics. Using a novel surface acoustic wave driven extensional flow technique we are able to perform currently lacking analysis of these suspensions and their complex buffer. We observe extensional viscosities from 3 mPa s (1 mPa s shear viscosity) to 37.2 Pa s via changes in the suspension concentration, thus capturing low viscosities that have been historically very challenging to measure. These changes equate to an increase in the relative extensional viscosity of nearly 12â€‰200 times at a volume fraction of just 0.027. We also find that interactions between the wires and the necessary polymer additive affect the rheology strongly. Polymer-induced elasticity shows a reduction as the buffer relaxation time falls from 819 to 59 Î¼s above a critical particle concentration. The results and technique presented here should aid in the future formulation of these promising nanowire suspensions and their efficient application as inks and coatings.
An Investigation of Hope and Context. - Journal of community psychology
One of the tenets of community psychology is examining psychological phenomena in context, and our studies explored the relationship between hope and context among individuals in recovery for substance use disorders. Study 1 involved 595 participants who resided in 90 recovery homes. We found that context, as house effects, was salient in residents' perceptions of hope, suggesting that the context of recovery homes-- their configurations and dynamics-- may play a role in an individual's future perspective. Study 2 involved 102 recovering adults. Findings indicated that one's perceived context (i.e., opportunities, choices, & obstacles) was related to not only one's self-reported levels of hope, but one's perception of hope for others. Approximately 50% of an individual's hopefulness was explained by contextual factors, thus suggesting that system level effects are critical to an individual's hopefulness. The finding that context was predictive of hopefulness suggests that a community psychology perspective on feelings of hope is critical, especially for individuals in substance use recovery. Implications regarding the importance of hope and context for ecological research and contextual influences on behavior change are discussed.
Substance Abuse Relapse in Oxford House Recovery Homes: A Survival Analysis Evaluation. - Substance abuse
This study used survival analysis to examine risk factors for substance abuse relapse among residents in Oxford Houses (OH) a national network of self-run, self-financed aftercare homes for individuals recovering from substance use disorders.Participants who entered OH within 60Â days of a one-year longitudinal study (N = 268) were selected from of a nationally representative U.S.Discrete-time survival analysis compared baseline risk of relapse to four hypothesized survival models that included time-invariant and time-varying factors across three subsequent time periods.The model predicting higher risk for more severe substance use disorders and psychiatric problems was supported. The hypothesized model that predicted time-varying increases in alcohol (but not drug) abstinence self-efficacy significantly affected risk of relapse. Hypothesized demographic and employment variables did not significantly predict relapse risk.Results suggested that OH recovery homes may reduce relapse by providing closer monitoring and referring additional services to new residents with more severe prior addiction severity. Risk for relapse may also be reduced by enhancing abstinence self-efficacy for alcohol regardless of drug of choice.
Tattoolike Polyaniline Microparticle-Doped Gold Nanowire Patches as Highly Durable Wearable Sensors. - ACS applied materials & interfaces
Wearable and highly sensitive strain sensors are essential components of electronic skin for future biomonitoring and human machine interfaces. Here we report a low-cost yet efficient strategy to dope polyaniline microparticles into gold nanowire (AuNW) films, leading to 10 times enhancement in conductivity and âˆ¼8 times improvement in sensitivity. Simultaneously, tattoolike wearable sensors could be fabricated simply by a direct "draw-on" strategy with a Chinese penbrush. The stretchability of the sensors could be enhanced from 99.7% to 149.6% by designing curved tattoo with different radius of curvatures. We also demonstrated roller coating method to encapusulate AuNWs sensors, exhibiting excellent water resistibility and durability. Because of improved conductivity of our sensors, they can directly interface with existing wireless circuitry, allowing for fabrication of wireless flexion sensors for a human finger-controlled robotic arm system.
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2402 S Miami Blvd Ste 108 Durham, NC 27703
2216 S Miami Blvd Ste 103