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First spermatological study in the Atractotrematidae (Digenea, Haploporoidea): the case of Atractotrema sigani, intestinal parasite of Siganus lineatus. - Parasite (Paris, France)
The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9Â +Â "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed.Â© A.J.S. Bakhoum et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis LacÃ©pÃ¨de (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917. - Systematic parasitology
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (LacÃ©pÃ¨de) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05Â mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38Â mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925Â Âµm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830Â Âµm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10Â mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.
Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Bianium Stunkard, 1930 (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae) parasites of fishes: a comparative study of Bianium plicitum and Bianium arabicum. - Parasitology research
We present in this paper the first ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of species of the genus Bianium Stunkard, 1930, namely Bianium plicitum and Bianium arabicum belonging to the family Lepocreadiidae. Specimens are parasites of the tetraodontid teleosts Lagocephalus laevigatus caught in the Atlantic Ocean and Lagocephalus sceleratus caught in Pacific Ocean, respectively. Live worms were fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Observations of numerous cross and longitudinal sections of the spermatozoa of B. plicitum and B. arabicum demonstrated the general pattern described in all previously studied Lepocreadioidea, namely two axonemes with 9+ "1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, two mitochondria, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane associated with spine-like bodies. The maximum number of cortical microtubules and the external ornamentation were not located at the anterior extremity of the spermatozoon but at a more posterior level, as in all the species of Lepocreadioidea studied to date. Differences observed between spermatozoa of B. plicitum and B. arabicum were observed in: (1) the location of the first mitochondrion, (2) size of cortical microtubules which were longer in B. arabicum than in B. plicitum, and (3) the order of the disappearance of the axonemes, mitochondrion, and cortical microtubules toward the posterior region of the spermatozoon. Only the nucleus reaches into the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon in these two species. The general pattern of the spermatozoon described in these two species exhibit the general model in the genus Bianium.
The invasive land planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae): records from six new localities, including the first in the USA. - PeerJ
The land planarian Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963 or "New Guinea flatworm" is a highly invasive species, mainly in the Pacific area, and recently in Europe (France). We report specimens from six additional countries and territories: New Caledonia (including mainland and two of the Loyalty Islands, Lifou and MarÃ©), Wallis and Futuna Islands, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Puerto Rico, and Florida, USA. We analysed the COI gene (barcoding) in these specimens with two sets of primers and obtained 909 bp long sequences. In addition, specimens collected in Townsville (Australia) were also sequenced. Two haplotypes of the COI sequence, differing by 3.7%, were detected: the "World haplotype" found in France, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Singapore, Florida and Puerto Rico; and the "Australian haplotype" found in Australia. The only locality with both haplotypes was in the Solomon Islands. The country of origin of Platydemus manokwari is New Guinea, and Australia and the Solomon Islands are the countries closest to New Guinea from which we had specimens. These results suggest that two haplotypes exist in the area of origin of the species, but that only one of the two haplotypes (the "World haplotype") has, through human agency, been widely dispersed. However, since P. manokwari is now recorded from 22 countries in the world and we have genetic information from only 8 of these, with none from New Guinea, this analysis provides only partial knowledge of the genetic structure of the invasive species. Morphological analysis of specimens from both haplotypes has shown some differences in ratio of the genital structures but did not allow us to interpret the haplotypes as different species. The new reports from Florida and Puerto Rico are firsts for the USA, for the American continent, and the Caribbean. P. manokwari is a known threat for endemic terrestrial molluscs and its presence is a matter of concern. While most of the infected territories reported until now were islands, the newly reported presence of the species in mainland US in Florida should be considered a potential major threat to the whole US and even the Americas.
Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France. - PeerJ
Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany), becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences) to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids) most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species.
Characterisation of Ascaridoid larvae from marine fish off New Caledonia, with description of new Hysterothylacium larval types XIII and XIV. - Parasitology international
Here we report occurrence of six different morphotypes of ascaridoid type larvae from 28 species of fish collected from New Caledonian waters. The larvae were morphologically identified as Anisakis type I, Hysterothylacium type VI and new larval types XIII and XIV, Raphidascaris larval type and Terranova larval type II. Representatives of each morphotype were subjected to the amplification of the second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and those sequences were compared with ITS-2 sequences of other ascaridoid nematodes previously deposited in GenBank. ITS-2 sequences of Anisakis larval type I were identical to those of A. typica. ITS-2 sequences of Hysterothylacium larval type VI in the present study were identical to those previously found in Eastern Australian waters. No match was found for ITS-2 sequences of Hysterothylacium larval types XIII and XIV; therefore, the specific identities of these larval types remain unclear. ITS-2 sequences of Raphidascaris larval type were identical to those of R. trichiuri, which have previously been reported in Taiwanese waters. Terranova larval type II in the present study had identical ITS-2 sequences with Terranova larval types reported from Australian waters, however, the specific identity is unknown. This taxonomic work is essential if further research on these zoonotic parasites is to be effective. This includes investigations into such aspects as life cycle studies, impacts on human health and risk assessment for their transmission to humans.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae). - Parasitology research
Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 Î¼m), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.
Effects of Attentional Loadings on Gait Performance Before Turning in Stroke Survivors. - PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation
Attentional loadings have significant impacts on turning performance in individuals with stroke. Improper gait modification before turning may contribute to falls after stroke. Therefore, examination of the changes in temporal-spatial gait parameters before turning may reveal important deficits in gait control when stroke survivors are challenged by dual-tasking.To compare the effects of 3 attentional loading conditions on spatial-temporal gait parameters before turning between stroke survivors and healthy control subjects.Case-control study design.University motion analysis laboratory.Ten chronic stroke survivors (mean age = 49 Â± 9 years) and 10 healthy control subjects (mean age = 53 Â± 5 years) were included.Spatial-temporal gait parameters were obtained by the use of a motion-capture system while participants performed the Timed-Up and Go (TUG) test under 3 attentional loading conditions: single, dual-motor, and dual-cognitive task conditions. A repeated-measure analysis of variance was used to analyze the data.We measured gait speed, stride length, and stride time during the straight walking phase (one gait cycle before turn) of the TUG test.We found that attentional loadings had a differential effect on gait speed measured for both groups (P = .001). The dual-motor and dual-cognitive task conditions led to a slower gait speed compared with the single-task condition in stroke survivors (both P = .02). However, in the TUG scores of healthy control subjects, only the dual-cognitive condition led to a significantly reduced gait speed compared with the single task condition (P = .001) and dual motor condition (P = .01).The results demonstrated that attentional loadings resulted in a greater deterioration of gait performance before turning in stroke survivors compared with healthy control subjects. Particularly, temporal gait parameter was more vulnerable to dual-task interference than the spatial gait parameter.Copyright Â© 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea). - PeerJ
The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + '1' trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea.
Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic. - Parasite (Paris, France)
Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 Î¼m), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 Î¼m) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid.Â© A. Chaabane et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
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