1125 N Church St
Greensboro NC 27401
Medical School: Jefferson Medical College Of Thomas Jefferson University - 1998
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: No
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. James Breen is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:99222||Description:Initial hospital care||Average Price:$251.76||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99238||Description:Hospital discharge day||Average Price:$155.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99232||Description:Subsequent hospital care||Average Price:$140.78||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99214||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$86.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99213||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$57.12||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused interval history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is responding inadequately to therapy or has developed a minor complication. Typically, 25 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Initial hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; and Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the problem(s) requiring admission are of moderate severity. Typically, 50 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 25 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Hospital discharge day management; 30 minutes or less
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Physical Medicine And Rehabilitation
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Breen has made to other doctors
Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: an exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina. - BMC health services research
Health services research of Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) have largely focused on studying disparities related to patient-provider communication. Less is known about their non-provider interactions such as those with patient registration systems and clinic front office staff; these interactions precede the encounter with providers and may shape how comfortable patients feel about their overall health services experience. This study explored Latino patients with LEP experiences with, and expectations for, interactions with patient registration systems and front office staff.We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with Latinos with LEP (â‰¥18 years of age) who seek health services in the Piedmont Triad region, North Carolina. We analyzed participants' quotes and identified themes by using a constant comparison method. This research was conducted by a community-academic partnership; partners were engaged in study design, instrument development, recruitment, data analysis, and manuscript writing.Qualitative analysis allowed us to identify the following recurring themes: 1) inconsistent registration of multiple surnames may contribute to patient misidentification errors and delays in receiving health care; 2) lack of Spanish language services in front office medical settings negatively affect care coordination and satisfaction with health care; and 3) perceived discrimination generates patients' mistrust in front office staff and discomfort with services.Latino patients in North Carolina experience health services barriers unique to their LEP background. Participants identified ways in which the lack of cultural and linguistic competence of front office staff negatively affect their experiences seeking health services. Healthcare organizations need to support their staff to encourage patient-centered principles.
Epigenetic regulation of sex ratios may explain natural variation in self-fertilization rates. - Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society
Self-fertilization (selfing) favours reproductive success when mate availability is low, but renders populations more vulnerable to environmental change by reducing genetic variability. A mixed-breeding strategy (alternating selfing and outcrossing) may allow species to balance these needs, but requires a system for regulating sexual identity. We explored the role of DNA methylation as a regulatory system for sex-ratio modulation in the mixed-mating fish Kryptolebias marmoratus. We found a significant interaction between sexual identity (male or hermaphrodite), temperature and methylation patterns when two selfing lines were exposed to different temperatures during development. We also identified several genes differentially methylated in males and hermaphrodites that represent candidates for the temperature-mediated sex regulation in K. marmoratus. We conclude that an epigenetic mechanism regulated by temperature modulates sexual identity in this selfing species, providing a potentially widespread mechanism by which environmental change may influence selfing rates. We also suggest that K. marmoratus, with naturally inbred populations, represents a good vertebrate model for epigenetic studies.Â© 2015 The Author(s).
Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms. - Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The maize disease resistance gene Htn1 against northern corn leaf blight encodes a wall-associated receptor-like kinase. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Exserohilum turcicum is an important foliar disease of maize that is mainly controlled by growing resistant maize cultivars. The Htn1 locus confers quantitative and partial NCLB resistance by delaying the onset of lesion formation. Htn1 represents an important source of genetic resistance that was originally introduced from a Mexican landrace into modern maize breeding lines in the 1970s. Using a high-resolution map-based cloning approach, we delimited Htn1 to a 131.7-kb physical interval on chromosome 8 that contained three candidate genes encoding two wall-associated receptor-like kinases (ZmWAK-RLK1 and ZmWAK-RLK2) and one wall-associated receptor-like protein (ZmWAK-RLP1). TILLING (targeting induced local lesions in genomes) mutants in ZmWAK-RLK1 were more susceptible to NCLB than wild-type plants, both in greenhouse experiments and in the field. ZmWAK-RLK1 contains a nonarginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase domain, typically found in plant innate immune receptors. Sequence comparison showed that the extracellular domain of ZmWAK-RLK1 is highly diverse between different maize genotypes. Furthermore, an alternative splice variant resulting in a truncated protein was present at higher frequency in the susceptible parents of the mapping populations compared with in the resistant parents. Hence, the quantitative Htn1 disease resistance in maize is encoded by an unusual innate immune receptor with an extracellular wall-associated kinase domain. These results further highlight the importance of this protein family in resistance to adapted pathogens.
Predicting the origin of soil evidence: High throughput eukaryote sequencing and MIR spectroscopy applied to a crime scene scenario. - Forensic science international
Soil can serve as powerful trace evidence in forensic casework, because it is highly individualistic and can be characterised using a number of techniques. Complex soil matrixes can support a vast number of organisms that can provide a site-specific signal for use in forensic soil discrimination. Previous DNA fingerprinting techniques rely on variations in fragment length to distinguish between soil profiles and focus solely on microbial communities. However, the recent development of high throughput sequencing (HTS) has the potential to provide a more detailed picture of the soil community by accessing non-culturable microorganisms and by identifying specific bacteria, fungi, and plants within soil. To demonstrate the application of HTS to forensic soil analysis, 18S ribosomal RNA profiles of six forensic mock crime scene samples were compared to those collected from seven reference locations across South Australia. Our results demonstrate the utility of non-bacterial DNA to discriminate between different sites, and were able to link a soil to a particular location. In addition, HTS complemented traditional Mid Infrared (MIR) spectroscopy soil profiling, but was able to provide statistically stronger discriminatory power at a finer scale. Through the design of an experimental case scenario, we highlight the considerations and potential limitations of this method in forensic casework. We show that HTS analysis of soil eukaryotes was robust to environmental variation, e.g. rainfall and temperature, transfer effects, storage effects and spatial variation. In addition, this study utilises novel analytical methodologies to interpret results for investigative purposes and provides prediction statistics to support soil DNA analysis for evidential stages of a case.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dairy herd mastitis and reproduction: using simulation to aid interpretation of results from discrete time survival analysis. - Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is a simulation-based technique for evaluating the relative importance of different inputs to a complex process model. It is commonly employed in decision analysis and for evaluation of the potential impact of uncertainty in research findings on clinical practice, but has a wide variety of other possible applications. In this example, it was used to evaluate the association between herd-level udder health and reproductive performance in dairy herds. Although several recent studies have found relatively large associations between mastitis and fertility at the level of individual inseminations or lactations, the current study demonstrated that herd-level intramammary infection status is highly unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on the overall reproductive performance of a dairy herd under typical conditions. For example, a large increase in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (from 92 to 131 cases per 100 cows per year) would be expected to increase a herd's modified FERTEX score (a cost-based measure of overall reproductive performance) by just Â£4.50(1) per cow per year. The herd's background level of submission rate (proportion of eligible cows served every 21 days) and pregnancy risk (proportion of inseminations leading to a pregnancy) correlated strongly with overall reproductive performance and explained a large proportion of the between-herd variation in performance. PSA proved to be a highly useful technique to aid understanding of results from a complex statistical model, and has great potential for a wide variety of applications within the field of veterinary science.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Major haplotype divergence including multiple germin-like protein genes, at the wheat Sr2 adult plant stem rust resistance locus. - BMC plant biology
The adult plant stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was introgressed into hexaploid wheat cultivar (cv) Marquis from tetraploid emmer wheat cv Yaroslav, to generate stem rust resistant cv Hope in the 1920s. Subsequently, Sr2 has been widely deployed and has provided durable partial resistance to all known races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. This report describes the physical map of the Sr2-carrying region on the short arm of chromosome 3B of cv Hope and compares the Hope haplotype with non-Sr2 wheat cv Chinese Spring.Sr2 was located to a region of 867Â kb on chromosome 3B in Hope, which corresponded to a region of 567Â kb in Chinese Spring. The Hope Sr2 region carried 34 putative genes but only 17 were annotated in the comparable region of Chinese Spring. The two haplotypes differed by extensive DNA sequence polymorphisms between flanking markers as well as by a major insertion/deletion event including ten Germin-Like Protein (GLP) genes in Hope that were absent in Chinese Spring. Haplotype analysis of a limited number of wheat genotypes of interest showed that all wheat genotypes carrying Sr2 possessed the GLP cluster; while, of those lacking Sr2, some, including Marquis, possessed the cluster, while some lacked it. Thus, this region represents a common presence-absence polymorphism in wheat, with presence of the cluster not correlated with presence of Sr2. Comparison of Hope and Marquis GLP genes on 3BS found no polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ten genes but several SNPs in the shared promoter of one divergently transcribed GLP gene pair and a single SNP downstream of the transcribed region of a second GLP.Physical mapping and sequence comparison showed major haplotype divergence at the Sr2 locus between Hope and Chinese Spring. Candidate genes within the Sr2 region of Hope are being evaluated for the ability to confer stem rust resistance. Based on the detailed mapping and sequencing of the locus, we predict that Sr2 does not belong to the NB-LRR gene family and is not related to previously cloned, race non-specific rust resistance genes Lr34 and Yr36.
A physical map of the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A. - PloS one
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large and highly repetitive genome which poses major technical challenges for its study. To aid map-based cloning and future genome sequencing projects, we constructed a BAC-based physical map of the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS). From the assembly of 25,918 high information content (HICF) fingerprints from a 1AS-specific BAC library, 715 physical contigs were produced that cover almost 99% of the estimated size of the chromosome arm. The 3,414 BAC clones constituting the minimum tiling path were end-sequenced. Using a gene microarray containing âˆ¼40 K NCBI UniGene EST clusters, PCR marker screening and BAC end sequences, we arranged 160 physical contigs (97 Mb or 35.3% of the chromosome arm) in a virtual order based on synteny with Brachypodium, rice and sorghum. BAC end sequences and information from microarray hybridisation was used to anchor 3.8 Mbp of Illumina sequences from flow-sorted chromosome 1AS to BAC contigs. Comparison of genetic and synteny-based physical maps indicated that âˆ¼50% of all genetic recombination is confined to 14% of the physical length of the chromosome arm in the distal region. The 1AS physical map provides a framework for future genetic mapping projects as well as the basis for complete sequencing of chromosome arm 1AS.
A major invasion of transposable elements accounts for the large size of the Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici genome. - Functional & integrative genomics
Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is caused by the ascomycete fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Genomic approaches open new ways to study the biology of this obligate biotrophic pathogen. We started the analysis of the Bg tritici genome with the low-pass sequencing of its genome using the 454 technology and the construction of the first genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for this fungus. High-coverage contigs were assembled with the 454 reads. They allowed the characterization of 56 transposable elements and the establishment of the Blumeria repeat database. The BAC library contains 12,288 clones with an average insert size of 115Â kb, which represents a maximum of 7.5-fold genome coverage. Sequencing of the BAC ends generated 12.6Â Mb of random sequence representative of the genome. Analysis of BAC-end sequences revealed a massive invasion of transposable elements accounting for at least 85% of the genome. This explains the unusually large size of this genome which we estimate to be at least 174Â Mb, based on a large-scale physical map constructed through the fingerprinting of the BAC library. Our study represents a crucial step in the perspective of the determination and study of the whole Bg tritici genome sequence.
Recent insertion of a 52-kb mitochondrial DNA segment in the wheat lineage. - Functional & integrative genomics
The assembly of a 1.3-Mb size region of the wheat genome has provided the opportunity to study a recent nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertion (NUMT). In the present study, we have studied two bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and characterized a 52-kb NUMT segment from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat BAC libraries. The conserved orthologous NUMT regions from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat Langdon and Chinese Spring shared identical gene haplotypes even though mutations (insertions, deletions, and substitutions) had occurred. The 52-kb NUMT was present in hexaploid variety Chinese Spring, but absent in variety Hope, by sequence comparison of their corresponding region. Amplifying the NUMT junctions using a set of the wheat materials including diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid lines showed that none of the diploid wheat carried the region and only some tetraploid and hexaploid wheat were positive for the NUMT. Age estimation of the NUMT displayed the mean ages of Langdon NUMT and Chinese Spring NUMT to be 378,000 and 416,000Â years ago, respectively. Reverse transcription PCR and sequencing of the nad7 gene showed 28 C â†’ U RNA editing sites and four partial editing sites, as expected for mitochondrial DNA expression. Specific SNPs discriminated between cDNA from the nucleus and the mitochondria and suggested that the nuclear copy was not expressed. The mitochondrial DNA studied was inserted into the genome quite recently within the wheat lineage and gave rise to the non-coding nuclear nad7 gene. The NUMT segment could be lost and acquired frequently during the wheat evolution.
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1125 N Church St Greensboro, NC 27401
301 E Wendover Ave Suite 411
1331 North Elm Street Suite 200
1200 N Elm St Moses H Cone Memorial Hospital
1331 North Elm Street Suite 200
1126 N Church St Suite 300