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Isolation and Characterization of Clostridium difficile in Farm Animals from Slaughterhouse to Retail Stage in Isfahan, Iran. - Foodborne pathogens and disease
To determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse through to retail stage, a total of 750 samples of feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were collected from cattle, camels, goats, and sheep in Isfahan, Iran. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in feces, posteviscerated and washed carcass were 20 (13.3%), 23 (15.3%), and 11 (7.3%), respectively; while C. difficile was isolated from 79 (26.3%) retail samples. Twenty-nine (3.8%) isolates were toxigenic, with most toxigenic isolates (nâ€‰=â€‰17, 5.6%) identified from the retail stage. All toxigenic isolates harbored tcdA and tcdB; however, all were negative for cdtB. The 29 isolates were classified into 21 different ribotypes. This study revealed evidence of existence of toxigenic C. difficile in farm animal feces and meat in Iran.
Relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Rafsanjan City, Iran. - Journal of health, population, and nutrition
Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87Â±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001) with GWG. All pregnant women should be counselled on achieving the reccomended GWG to prevent adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes. Pre-pregnancy and gestational nutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care.
Carriage rates and characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in healthy individuals: comparison of applicants for long-term care and individuals screened for employment purposes. - Chemotherapy
We compared the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in the faecal samples of 1,109 healthy individuals screened for employment purposes and in 531 asymptomatic individuals applying for long-term care (LTC).Eosin-methylene blue agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/l cefotaxime were used to determine which individuals were ESBL producers. ESBL phenotype was confirmed by double-disk synergy test and ESBL genes were identified by sequencing. ESBL producers were characterized by co-resistance and integron carriage.ESBL producers were more frequent in the LTC applicants than in the employment screening individuals (7.2 vs. 2.0%; p < 0.0001), with 43 Escherichia coli, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca and 1 Proteus mirabilis being found. In the employment screening individuals, only E. coli was found. Most ESBL genes (79.4%, 50/63) were blaCTX-M type; blaCTX-M-15 was more frequent in the LTC applicants (p < 0.001). Regarding ESBL genes and integron diversity, E. coli isolates from the LTC applicants were more similar to K. pneumoniae than to E. coli from the employment screening individuals.These differences in the characteristics of ESBL producers may represent different sources of colonization. Most LTC applicants harboured K. pneumoniae or E. coli that were probably hospital-acquired whereas the E. coli isolates of many healthy individuals showed similarities to environmental E. coli.Â© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The effect of maternal employment on the elementary and junior high school students' mental health in Maku. - Global journal of health science
Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals' fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents' personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child's personality than other factors. Given the mothers' role in children's mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation's future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal employment on students' mental health in Maku.The present study is descriptive and cross-sectional, and the population of the study encompasses all students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades (n=583) who are studying in 2013-2014 academic year in Maku. General Heath Questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and the SPSS software was used for analyzing the data.The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the mental health problems, somatic problems, social functioning, anxiety, and depression of the students with employed and non-employed mothers. In other words, the students with non-working mothers experienced greater mental disorders than those with working mothers.According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children with working mothers showed a better mental health than non-working mothers' children.
Effects of formulation variables and storage conditions on light protected vitamin B12 mixed parenteral formulations. - Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin
In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced.In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2).Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours.It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate "Store in refrigerator" on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.
Effect of carbapenem consumption patterns on the molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. - Journal of medical microbiology
This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in the University of Debrecen in relation to antibiotic consumption. Overall and ward-specific antibiotic consumption was measured by the number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 bed-days between 2002 and 2012. Consumption was analysed against the number of A. baumannii positive patients per 100 bed-days, number of isolates per positive sample, and proportion of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii, using time-series analysis. Altogether 160 A. baumannii isolates from different wards were collected and analysed. Carbapenemase genes bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-48-like), bla(OXA-51-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and integrons were sought by PCR. Relatedness of isolates was assessed by PFGE. Prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were statistically associated with carbapenem consumption. Prevalence data followed carbapenem usage with three quarterly lags (râ€Š=â€Š0.51-0.53, P<0.001), and meropenem and ertapenem, but not imipenem usage, affected prevalence. Colistin usage, in turn, lagged behind prevalence with one lag (râ€Š=â€Š0.68-0.70, P<0.001). Six clusters were identified; the neurology ward with the lowest carbapenem consumption was associated with the carbapenem-susceptible cluster, as well as with the carbapenem-susceptible isolates in the cluster with variable susceptibility. Wards with high carbapenem usage almost exclusively harboured isolates from carbapenem-resistant clusters. All clusters were dominated by isolates of one or two wards, but most wards were represented in multiple clusters. Increases in prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were associated with usage of meropenem and ertapenem but not of imipenem, which led to the spread of multiple clones in the University.Â© 2014 The Authors.
Edaravone decreases paraquat toxicity in a549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria. - Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR
Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided into control group, PQ group, edaravone group and PQ plus edaravone-pretreated group. Cellular and mitochondrial viability assayed using MTT test and ROS generations in both cellular and mitochondrial fraction were determined by fluorometry using DCFH-DA as indicator. Our results showed that edaravone (5-100 ÂµM) prevented PQ (500 ÂµM) induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that the best protective effect was observed at concentration of 50 ÂµM of edaravone. In addition, PQ-induced ROS generation in A549 cells significantly inhibited by edaravone. Moreover, PQ decreased mitochondria viability and also increased ROS generation in lung isolated mitochondria that edaravone (25-400 ÂµM) markedly inhibited these toxic effects. In overall, the results of this study suggest that lung mitochondria maintenance is essential for maintaining PQt cytotoxicity and Edaravone is a protective drug against PQ toxicity in-vitro.
Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles. - The Journal of chemical physics
We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time Ï„(r) in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r(2) model) or through the whole particle (r(3) model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of Ï„(r). It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, Ï„Ì…(r) rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, Ï„Ì…(r) is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of Ï„Ì…(r). Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, Ï„Ì…(r) scales as d(2). For a surface distribution of traps Ï„(r) increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.
Sesquiterpene lactones from Ferula oopoda and their cytotoxic properties. - Journal of Asian natural products research
Two new sesquiterpene lactones, namely feruhodin A and feruhodin B, together with six known compounds, daucoeudesmanolactone, dehydrooopodin, oopodin, badkhysin, 7-demethylplastochromenol, and scoparone, were isolated from the roots of Ferula oopoda. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. Cytotoxic effects of these compounds were evaluated against two human cancer cell lines including MCF7and K562 using the Alamar blue assay. The results showed that dehydrooopodin possessed significant cytotoxic effects with ICâ‚…â‚€ values of 15 and 5 Î¼M against MCF7 and K562, respectively.
A potential role of aminoglycoside resistance in endemic occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in lower airways of mechanically ventilated patients. - Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
Altogether, 98 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a 5-bed intensive care unit were fingerprinted with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tested for aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6')-Ib, aac(3â€³)-IIa, ant(2â€³)-Ia, armA, rmtA, and rmtB and integrons and virulence genes/operons phzI, phzII, phzM, phzS, apr, lasB, plcH, plcN, pilA, algD, toxA, exoS, exoT, exoY, and exoU. Two major clusters were identified (49 and 19 isolates), harbouring aac(6')-Ib, blaPSE-1, and ant(3â€³)-Ia genes or ant(2â€³)-Ia gene, respectively, on a class I integron. Most virulence genes except for exoU and pilA were found. Only 1 isolate of the minor cluster (8 isolates) and 1 of the 22 sporadic isolates carried integrons (without gene cassettes); virulence profile was highly variable. Comparing the resistance and virulence patterns of endemic and sporadic isolates suggests that integron-borne aminoglycoside resistance is more closely associated with the frequency than virulence. Consequently, aminoglycoside usage may have played a role in maintenance of the endemic clones.Â© 2013.
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