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Ginsenoside Rd inhibits apoptosis following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. - Neural regeneration research
Ginsenoside Rd has a clear neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke. We aimed to verify the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rd in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury and explore its anti-apoptotic mechanisms. We established a spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury model in rats through the occlusion of the abdominal aorta below the level of the renal artery for 1 hour. Successfully established models were injected intraperitoneally with 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg per day ginsenoside Rd. Spinal cord morphology was observed at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rd in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats not only improved hindlimb motor function and the morphology of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, but it also reduced neuronal apoptosis. The optimal dose of ginsenoside Rd was 25 mg/kg per day and the optimal time point was 5 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed ginsenoside Rd dose-dependently inhibited expression of pro-apoptotic Caspase 3 and down-regulated the expression of the apoptotic proteins ASK1 and JNK in the spinal cord of rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. These findings indicate that ginsenoside Rd exerts neuroprotective effects against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms are achieved through the inhibition of ASK1-JNK pathway and the down-regulation of Caspase 3 expression.
Immunoglobulin A coating identifies colitogenic bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. - Cell
Specific members of the intestinal microbiota dramatically affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. In humans, however, identifying bacteria that preferentially affect disease susceptibility and severity remains a major challenge. Here, we used flow-cytometry-based bacterial cell sorting and 16S sequencing to characterize taxa-specific coating of the intestinal microbiota with immunoglobulin A (IgA-SEQ) and show that high IgA coating uniquely identifies colitogenic intestinal bacteria in a mouse model of microbiota-driven colitis. We then used IgA-SEQ and extensive anaerobic culturing of fecal bacteria from IBD patients to create personalized disease-associated gut microbiota culture collections with predefined levels of IgA coating. Using these collections, we found that intestinal bacteria selected on the basis of high coating with IgA conferred dramatic susceptibility to colitis in germ-free mice. Thus, our studies suggest that IgA coating identifies inflammatory commensals that preferentially drive intestinal disease. Targeted elimination of such bacteria may reduce, reverse, or even prevent disease development.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The microbial metabolite butyrate regulates intestinal macrophage function via histone deacetylase inhibition. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Given the trillions of microbes that inhabit the mammalian intestines, the host immune system must constantly maintain a balance between tolerance to commensals and immunity against pathogens to avoid unnecessary immune responses against otherwise harmless bacteria. Misregulated responses can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The mechanisms by which the immune system maintains this critical balance remain largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate, which is secreted in high amounts by commensal bacteria, can modulate the function of intestinal macrophages, the most abundant immune cell type in the lamina propria. Treatment of macrophages with n-butyrate led to the down-regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, IL-6, and IL-12, but did not affect levels of TNF-Î± or MCP-1. These effects were independent of toll-like receptor signaling and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, two pathways that could be affected by short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that suggest that these effects are due to the inhibition of histone deacetylases by n-butyrate. These findings elucidate a pathway in which the host may maintain tolerance to intestinal microbiota by rendering lamina propria macrophages hyporesponsive to commensal bacteria through the down-regulation of proinflammatory effectors.
Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection. - Immunity
Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4âº effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Microbiota-induced activation of epithelial IL-6 signaling links inflammasome-driven inflammation with transmissible cancer. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The microbiota is pivotal in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated inflammation-induced colorectal cancer (CRC), yet mechanisms for these effects remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that aberrant inflammasome-induced microbiota plays a critical role in CRC development, where mice deficient in the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6 (NLRP6) inflammasome feature enhanced inflammation-induced CRC formation. Intriguingly, WT mice cohoused either with inflammasome-deficient mice or with mice lacking IL-18 feature exacerbated inflammation-induced CRC compared with singly housed WT mice. Enhanced tumorigenesis is dependent on microbiota-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)-driven inflammation, which in turn promotes epithelial cell proliferation through local activation of the IL-6 pathway, leading to cancer formation. Altogether, our results mechanistically link the altered microbiota with the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced CRC and suggest that in some conditions, microbiota components may transfer CRC susceptibility between individuals.
IL-22 deficiency alters colonic microbiota to be transmissible and colitogenic. - Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
IL-22 is a good candidate to play a critical role in regulating gut microbiota because it is an important inducer of antimicrobial peptides and mucins in the gut. However, whether IL-22 participates in immune homeostasis by way of modulating gut microbiota remains to be elucidated. In this study, we find, through 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing analysis, that healthy IL-22-deficient mice had altered colonic microbiota, notably with decreased abundance of some genera, including Lactobacillus, and increased levels of others. Mice harboring this altered microbiota exhibited more severe disease during experimentally induced colitis. Interestingly, this altered gut microbiota can be transmitted to cohoused wild-type animals along with the increased susceptibility to this colitis, indicating an important role for IL-22 in shaping the homeostatic balance between immunity and colonic microbiota for host health.
Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity. - Nature
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Twenty per cent of NAFLD individuals develop chronic hepatic inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) associated with cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma, yet the causes of progression from NAFLD to NASH remain obscure. Here, we show that the NLRP6 and NLRP3 inflammasomes and the effector protein IL-18 negatively regulate NAFLD/NASH progression, as well as multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome via modulation of the gut microbiota. Different mouse models reveal that inflammasome-deficiency-associated changes in the configuration of the gut microbiota are associated with exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation through influx of TLR4 and TLR9 agonists into the portal circulation, leading to enhanced hepatic tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-Î± expression that drives NASH progression. Furthermore, co-housing of inflammasome-deficient mice with wild-type mice results in exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and obesity. Thus, altered interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, produced by defective NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome sensing, may govern the rate of progression of multiple metabolic syndrome-associated abnormalities, highlighting the central role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of heretofore seemingly unrelated systemic auto-inflammatory and metabolic disorders.
Memory/effector (CD45RB(lo)) CD4 T cells are controlled directly by IL-10 and cause IL-22-dependent intestinal pathology. - The Journal of experimental medicine
The role of direct IL-10 signaling in different T cell subsets is not well understood. To address this, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative IL-10 receptor specifically in T cells (CD4dnIL-10RÎ±). We found that Foxp3-depleted CD45RB(lo) (regulatory T cell [T(reg) cell]-depleted CD45RB(lo)) but not CD45RB(hi) CD4(+) T cells are controlled directly by IL-10 upon transfer into Rag1 knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, the colitis induced by transfer of T(reg) cell-depleted CD45RB(lo) CD4(+) T cells into Rag1 KO mice was characterized by reduced Th1 and increased Th17 cytokine messenger RNA levels in the colon as compared with the colitis induced by transfer of CD45RB(hi) T cells. In contrast to the CD45RB(hi) transfer colitis model, in which IL-22 is protective, we found that T cell-derived IL-22 was pathogenic upon transfer of T(reg) cell-depleted CD45RB(lo) T cells into Rag1 KO mice. Our results highlight characteristic differences between colitis induced by naive (CD45RB(hi)) and memory/effector (T(reg) cell-depleted CD45RB(lo)) cells and different ways that IL-22 impacts inflammatory bowel disease.
Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling plays an essential role in homeostasis of the intestine. - European journal of immunology
A healthy intestinal tract is characterized by controlled homeostasis due to the balanced interaction between commensal bacteria and the host mucosal immune system. Human and animal model studies have supported the hypothesis that breakdown of this homeostasis may underlie the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not well understood how intestinal microflora stimulate the intestinal mucosal immune system and how such activation is regulated. Using a spontaneous, commensal bacteria-dependent colitis model in IL-10-deficient mice, we investigated the role of TLR and their negative regulation in intestinal homeostasis. In addition to IL-10(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice, IL-10(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced colitis compared to IL-10(-/-) mice, indicating that TLR4 signaling plays an important role in inducing colitis. Interestingly, the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, is dependent on intestinal commensal flora, as IRAK-M expression was reduced in mice re-derived into a germ-free environment, and introduction of commensal bacteria into germ-free mice induced IRAK-M expression. IL-10(-/-) IRAK-M(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated colitis with increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Therefore, this study indicates that intestinal microflora stimulate the colitogenic immune system through TLR and negative regulation of TLR signaling is essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.Copyright Â© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Genetic repression of mouse VEGF expression regulates coagulation cascade. - IUBMB life
VEGF is an important growth factor in embryonic development and functional maintenance of adult organs. Single allele inactivation of VEGF leads to embryonic lethality and many conditional disruptions show dramatic phenotypes or reduced viabilities. To overcome this burden, a reversible system, which was used in the regulation of VEGF expression and functional studies of many tissues and organs in adult, was developed. VEGF is known for expression in many tissues and high expression in platelets. Repression of VEGF expression showed significant defect in bleeding time and clotting time. In mouse model of LPS-induced blood hypercoagulation, significant reduction of plasma thrombin-antithrombin formation was observed in VEGF repressed mice, and tissues expressed different modes of damages. These results indicate that VEGF regulates coagulation cascade and may affect sepsis. This is the first genetic evidence of direct link between VEGF transcription and coagulation cascade. Studies using this system may help us to find out how VEGF regulates coagulation cascade and provide new strategies in treating coagulation related diseases.
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