9015 Queens Blvd
Elmhurst NY 11373
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Myocardial transcription factors in diastolic dysfunction: clues for model systems and disease. - Heart failure reviews
There are multiple intrinsic mechanisms for diastolic dysfunction ranging from molecular to structural derangements in ventricular myocardium. The molecular mechanisms regulating the progression from normal diastolic function to severe dysfunction still remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a potentially important role of core cardio-enriched transcription factors (TFs) in the control of cardiac diastolic function in health and disease through their ability to regulate the expression of target genes involved in the process of adaptive and maladaptive cardiac remodeling. The current relevant findings on the role of a variety of such TFs (TBX5, GATA-4/6, SRF, MYOCD, NRF2, and PITX2) in cardiac diastolic dysfunction and failure are updated, emphasizing their potential as promising targets for novel treatment strategies. In turn, the new animal models described here will be key tools in determining the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Since diastolic dysfunction is regulated by various TFs, which are also involved in cross talk with each other, there is a need for more in-depth research from a biomedical perspective in order to establish efficient therapeutic strategies.
High-accuracy reference standards for two-photon absorption in the 680-1050 nm wavelength range. - Optics express
Degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) of a series of organic fluorophores is measured using femtosecond fluorescence excitation method in the wavelength range, Î»2PA = 680-1050 nm, and ~100 MHz pulse repetition rate. The function of relative 2PA spectral shape is obtained with estimated accuracy 5%, and the absolute 2PA cross section is measured at selected wavelengths with the accuracy 8%. Significant improvement of the accuracy is achieved by means of rigorous evaluation of the quadratic dependence of the fluorescence signal on the incident photon flux in the whole wavelength range, by comparing results obtained from two independent experiments, as well as due to meticulous evaluation of critical experimental parameters, including the excitation spatial- and temporal pulse shape, laser power and sample geometry. Application of the reference standards in nonlinear transmittance measurements is discussed.
Equilibrium microphase separation in the two-leaflet model of lipid membranes. - Physical review. E
Because of the coupling between local lipid composition and the thickness of the membrane, microphase separation in two-component lipid membranes can take place; such effects may underlie the formation of equilibrium nanoscale rafts. Using a kinetic description, this phenomenon is analytically and numerically investigated. The phase diagram is constructed through the stability analysis for linearized kinetic equations, and conditions for microphase separation are discussed. Simulations of the full kinetic model reveal the development of equilibrium membrane nanostructures with various morphologies from the initial uniform state.
Single-Molecule Stochastic Analysis of Channeling Enzyme Tryptophan Synthase. - The journal of physical chemistry. B
The channeling enzyme tryptophan synthase provides a paradigmatic example of a chemical nanomachine. It possesses two active centers and, as a single molecule, catalyzes 13 different reaction steps with a complex pattern of allosteric regulation and with an intermediate product channeled from one active center to another. Here, the first single-molecule stochastic model of the enzyme is proposed and analyzed. All its transition rate constants were deduced from the experimental data available, and no fitting parameters were thus employed. Numerical simulations reveal strong correlations in the states of the active centers and the emergent synchronization of intramolecular processes in tryptophan synthase.
A MicroRNA-Transcription Factor Blueprint for Early Atrial Arrhythmogenic Remodeling. - BioMed research international
Spontaneous self-terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common heart rhythm disorders, yet the regulatory molecular mechanisms underlying this syndrome are rather unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) transcriptome and expression of candidate transcription factors (TFs) with potential roles in arrhythmogenesis, such as Pitx2, Tbx5, and myocardin (Myocd), were analyzed by microarray, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting in left atrial (LA) samples from pigs with transitory AF established by right atrial tachypacing. Induced ectopic tachyarrhythmia caused rapid and substantial miRNA remodeling associated with a marked downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd expression in atrial myocardium. The downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd was inversely correlated with upregulation of the corresponding targeting miRNAs (miR-21, miR-10a/10b, and miR-1, resp.) in the LA of paced animals. Through in vitro transient transfections of HL-1 atrial myocytes, we further showed that upregulation of miR-21 did result in downregulation of Pitx2 in cardiomyocyte background. The results suggest that immediate-early miRNA remodeling coupled with deregulation of TF expression underlies the onset of AF.
Hydrodynamic collective effects of active protein machines in solution and lipid bilayers. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The cytoplasm and biomembranes in biological cells contain large numbers of proteins that cyclically change their shapes. They are molecular machines that can function as molecular motors or carry out various other tasks in the cell. Many enzymes also undergo conformational changes within their turnover cycles. We analyze the advection effects that nonthermal fluctuating hydrodynamic flows induced by active proteins have on other passive molecules in solution or membranes. We show that the diffusion constants of passive particles are enhanced substantially. Furthermore, when gradients of active proteins are present, a chemotaxis-like drift of passive particles takes place. In lipid bilayers, the effects are strongly nonlocal, so that active inclusions in the entire membrane contribute to local diffusion enhancement and the drift. All active proteins in a biological cell or in a membrane contribute to such effects and all passive particles, and the proteins themselves, will be subject to them.
Advection of passive particles over flow networks. - Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
The problem of stochastic advection of passive particles by circulating conserved flows on networks is formulated and investigated. The particles undergo transitions between the nodes, with the transition rates determined by the flows passing through the links. Such stochastic advection processes lead to mixing of particles in the network and, in the final equilibrium state, concentration of particles in all nodes becomes equal. As we find, equilibration begins in the subset of nodes, representing flow hubs, and extends to the periphery nodes with weak flows. This behavior is related to the effect of localization of the eigenvectors of the advection matrix for considered networks. Applications of the results to problems involving spreading of infections or pollutants by traffic networks are discussed.
Autonomous learning by simple dynamical systems with delayed feedback. - Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
A general scheme for the construction of dynamical systems able to learn generation of the desired kinds of dynamics through adjustment of their internal structure is proposed. The scheme involves intrinsic time-delayed feedback to steer the dynamics towards the target performance. As an example, a system of coupled phase oscillators, which can, by changing the weights of connections between its elements, evolve to a dynamical state with the prescribed (low or high) synchronization level, is considered and investigated.
Pitx2c is reactivated in the failing myocardium and stimulates myf5 expression in cultured cardiomyocytes. - PloS one
Pitx2 (paired-like homeodomain 2 transcription factor) is crucial for heart development, but its role in heart failure (HF) remains uncertain. The present study lays the groundwork implicating Pitx2 signalling in different modalities of HF.A variety of molecular, cell-based, biochemical, and immunochemical assays were used to evaluate: (1) Pitx2c expression in the porcine model of diastolic HF (DHF) and in patients with systolic HF (SHF) due to dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathy, and (2) molecular consequences of Pitx2c expression manipulation in cardiomyocytes in vitro. In pigs, the expression of Pitx2c, physiologically downregulated in the postnatal heart, is significantly re-activated in left ventricular (LV) failing myocardium which, in turn, is associated with increased expression of a restrictive set of Pitx2 target genes. Among these, Myf5 was identified as the top upregulated gene. In vitro, forced expression of Pitx2c in cardiomyocytes, but not in skeletal myoblasts, activates Myf5 in dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that the level of Pitx2c is upregulated in the LV-myocardium of SHF patients.The results provide previously unrecognized evidence that Pitx2c is similarly reactivated in postnatal/adult heart at distinct HF phenotypes and suggest that Pitx2c is involved, directly or indirectly, in the regulation of Myf5 expression in cardiomyocytes.
Dispersal-induced destabilization of metapopulations and oscillatory Turing patterns in ecological networks. - Scientific reports
As shown by Alan Turing in 1952, differential diffusion may destabilize uniform distributions of reacting species and lead to emergence of patterns. While stationary Turing patterns are broadly known, the oscillatory instability, leading to traveling waves in continuous media and sometimes called the wave bifurcation, remains less investigated. Here, we extend the original analysis by Turing to networks and apply it to ecological metapopulations with dispersal connections between habitats. Remarkably, the oscillatory Turing instability does not lead to wave patterns in networks, but to spontaneous development of heterogeneous oscillations and possible extinction of species. We find such oscillatory instabilities for all possible food webs with three predator or prey species, under various assumptions about the mobility of individual species and nonlinear interactions between them. Hence, the oscillatory Turing instability should be generic and must play a fundamental role in metapopulation dynamics, providing a common mechanism for dispersal-induced destabilization of ecosystems.
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9015 Queens Blvd Elmhurst, NY 11373
9015 Queens Blvd Queens Center Mall
91-31 Queens Blvd Suite 304
9002 Queens Blvd St Johns Hospital Dept Of Pediatrics
83-21 57Th Ave
7901 Broadway Elmhurst Hospital Center