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The Fab1/PIKfyve phosphoinositide phosphate kinase is not necessary to maintain the pH of lysosomes and of the yeast vacuole. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Lysosomes and the yeast vacuole are degradative and acidic organelles. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), a master architect of endolysosome and vacuole identity, is thought to be necessary for vacuolar acidification in yeast. There is also evidence that PtdIns(3,5)P2 may play a role in lysosomal acidification in higher eukaryotes. Nevertheless, these conclusions rely on qualitative assays of lysosome/vacuole pH. For example, quinacrine, an acidotropic fluorescent base, does not accumulate in the vacuoles of fab1Î” yeast. Fab1, along with its mammalian ortholog PIKfyve, is the lipid kinase responsible for synthesizing PtdIns(3,5)P2. In this study, we employed several assays that quantitatively assessed the lysosomal and vacuolar pH in PtdIns(3,5)P2-depleted cells. Using ratiometric imaging, we conclude that lysosomes retain a pH < 5 in PIKfyve-inhibited mammalian cells. In addition, quantitative fluorescence microscopy of vacuole-targeted pHluorin, a pH-sensitive GFP variant, indicates that fab1Î” vacuoles are as acidic as wild-type yeast. Importantly, we also employed fluorimetry of vacuoles loaded with cDCFDA, a pH-sensitive dye, to show that both wild-type and fab1Î” vacuoles have a pH < 5.0. In comparison, the vacuolar pH of the V-ATPase mutant vph1Î” or vph1Î” fab1Î” double mutant was 6.1. Although the steady-state vacuolar pH is not affected by PtdIns(3,5)P2 depletion, it may have a role in stabilizing the vacuolar pH during salt shock. Overall, we propose a model in which PtdIns(3,5)P2 does not govern the steady-state pH of vacuoles or lysosomes.Â© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
HDAC1,2 inhibition impairs EZH2- and BBAP-mediated DNA repair to overcome chemoresistance in EZH2 gain-of-function mutant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. - Oncotarget
Gain-of-function mutations in the catalytic site of EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2), is observed in about 22% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. Here we show that selective inhibition of histone deacetylase 1,2 (HDAC1,2) activity using a small molecule inhibitor causes cytotoxic or cytostatic effects in EZH2 gain-of-function mutant (EZH2GOF) DLBCL cells. Our results show that blocking the activity of HDAC1,2 increases global H3K27ac without causing a concomitant global decrease in H3K27me3 levels. Our data shows that inhibition of HDAC1,2 is sufficient to decrease H3K27me3 present at DSBs, decrease DSB repair and activate the DNA damage response in these cells. In addition to increased H3K27me3, we found that the EZH2GOF DLBCL cells overexpress another chemotherapy resistance factor - B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP). BBAP monoubiquitinates histone H4K91, a residue that is also subjected to acetylation. Our results show that selective inhibition of HDAC1,2 increases H4K91ac, decreases BBAP-mediated H4K91 monoubiquitination, impairs BBAP-dependent DSB repair and sensitizes the refractory EZH2GOF DLBCL cells to treatment with doxorubicin, a chemotherapy agent. Hence, selective HDAC1,2 inhibition provides a novel DNA repair mechanism-based therapeutic approach as it can overcome both EZH2- and BBAP-mediated DSB repair in the EZH2GOF DLBCL cells.
Suppression of mTORC1 activation in acid-Î±-glucosidase-deficient cells and mice is ameliorated by leucine supplementation. - American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
Pompe disease is due to a deficiency in acid-Î±-glucosidase (GAA) and results in debilitating skeletal muscle wasting, characterized by the accumulation of glycogen and autophagic vesicles. Given the role of lysosomes as a platform for mTORC1 activation, we examined mTORC1 activity in models of Pompe disease. GAA-knockdown C2C12 myoblasts and GAA-deficient human skin fibroblasts of infantile Pompe patients were found to have decreased mTORC1 activation. Treatment with the cell-permeable leucine analog L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester restored mTORC1 activation. In vivo, Pompe mice also displayed reduced basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle, whereas treatment with a combination of insulin and leucine normalized mTORC1 activation. Chronic leucine feeding restored basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation, while partially protecting Pompe mice from developing kyphosis and the decline in muscle mass. Leucine-treated Pompe mice showed increased spontaneous activity and running capacity, with reduced muscle protein breakdown and glycogen accumulation. Together, these data demonstrate that GAA deficiency results in reduced mTORC1 activation that is partly responsible for the skeletal muscle wasting phenotype. Moreover, mTORC1 stimulation by dietary leucine supplementation prevented some of the detrimental skeletal muscle dysfunction that occurs in the Pompe disease mouse model.Copyright Â© 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Global Nav1.7 knockout mice recapitulate the phenotype of human congenital indifference to pain. - PloS one
Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund's adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain.
Identification of a potent, state-dependent inhibitor of Nav1.7 with oral efficacy in the formalin model of persistent pain. - Journal of medicinal chemistry
Clinical human genetic studies have recently identified the tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive neuronal voltage gated sodium channel Nav1.7 (SCN9A) as a critical mediator of pain sensitization. Herein, we report structure-activity relationships for a novel series of 2,4-diaminotriazines that inhibit hNav1.7. Optimization efforts culminated in compound 52, which demonstrated pharmacokinetic properties appropriate for in vivo testing in rats. The binding site of compound 52 on Nav1.7 was determined to be distinct from that of local anesthetics. Compound 52 inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels recorded from rat sensory neurons and exhibited modest selectivity against the hERG potassium channel and against cloned and native tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. Upon oral administration to rats, compound 52 produced dose- and exposure-dependent efficacy in the formalin model of pain.
Cytosolic H+ microdomain developed around AE1 during AE1-mediated Cl-/HCO3- exchange. - The Journal of physiology
Microdomains, regions of discontinuous cytosolic solute concentration enhanced by rapid solute transport and slow diffusion rates, have many cellular roles. pH-regulatory membrane transporters, like the Clâˆ’/HCO3âˆ’ exchanger AE1, could develop H+ microdomains since AE1 has a rapid transport rate and cytosolic H+ diffusion is slow. We examined whether the pH environment surrounding AE1 differs from other cellular locations. As AE1 drives Clâˆ’/HCO3âˆ’ exchange, differences in pH, near and remote from AE1, were monitored by confocal microscopy using two pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins: deGFP4 (GFP) and mNectarine (mNect). Plasma membrane (PM) pH (defined as âˆ¼1 Î¼m region around the cell periphery) was monitored by GFP fused to AE1 (GFP.AE1), and mNect fused to an inactive mutant of the Na+-coupled nucleoside co-transporter, hCNT3 (mNect.hCNT3). GFP.AE1 to mNect.hCNT3 distance was varied by co-expression of different amounts of the two proteins in HEK293 cells. As the GFP.AE1â€“mNect.hCNT3 distance increased, mNect.hCNT3 detected the Clâˆ’/HCO3âˆ’ exchange-associated cytosolic pH change with a time delay and reduced rate of pH change compared to GFP.AE1. We found that a H+ microdomain 0.3 Î¼m in diameter forms around GFP.AE1 during physiological HCO3âˆ’ transport. Carbonic anhydrase isoform II inhibition prevented H+ microdomain formation. We also measured the rate of H+ movement from PM GFP.AE1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using mNect fused to the cytosolic face of ER-resident calnexin (CNX.mNect). The rate of H+ diffusion through cytosol was 60-fold faster than along the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane. The pH environment surrounding pH regulatory transport proteins may differ as a result of H+ microdomain formation, which will affect nearby pH-sensitive processes.
Characterization of an epilepsy-associated variant of the human Cl-/HCO3(-) exchanger AE3. - American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
Anion exchanger 3 (AE3), expressed in the brain, heart, and retina, extrudes intracellular HCO(3)(-) in exchange for extracellular Cl(-). The SLC4A3 gene encodes two variants of AE3, brain or full-length AE3 (AE3(fl)) and cardiac AE3 (cAE3). Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures that affect about 50 million people worldwide. The AE3-A867D allele in humans has been associated with the development of IGE (IGE), which accounts for approximately 30% of all epilepsies. To examine the molecular basis for the association of the A867D allele with IGE, we characterized wild-type (WT) and AE3(fl)-A867D in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. AE3(fl)-A867D had significantly reduced transport activity relative to WT (54 +/- 4%, P < 0.01). Differences in expression levels or the degree of protein trafficking to the plasma membrane did not account for the defect of AE3(fl)-A867D. Treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) increased Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity of WT and AE3(fl)-A867D to a similar degree, which was abolished by preincubation with the protein kinase A (PKA)-specific inhibitor H89. This indicates that PKA regulates WT and AE3(fl)-A867D Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity. No difference in Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity was found between cultures of mixed populations of neonatal hippocampal cells from WT and slc4a3(-/-) mice. We conclude that the A867D allele is a functional (catalytic) mutant of AE3 and that the decreased activity of AE3(fl)-A867D may cause changes in cell volume and abnormal intracellular pH. In the brain, these alterations may promote neuron hyperexcitability and the generation of seizures.
Red fluorescent protein pH biosensor to detect concentrative nucleoside transport. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Human concentrative nucleoside transporter, hCNT3, mediates Na+/nucleoside and H+/nucleoside co-transport. We describe a new approach to monitor H+/uridine co-transport in cultured mammalian cells, using a pH-sensitive monomeric red fluorescent protein variant, mNectarine, whose development and characterization are also reported here. A chimeric protein, mNectarine fused to the N terminus of hCNT3 (mNect.hCNT3), enabled measurement of pH at the intracellular surface of hCNT3. mNectarine fluorescence was monitored in HEK293 cells expressing mNect.hCNT3 or mNect.hCNT3-F563C, an inactive hCNT3 mutant. Free cytosolic mNect, mNect.hCNT3, and the traditional pH-sensitive dye, BCECF, reported cytosolic pH similarly in pH-clamped HEK293 cells. Cells were incubated at the permissive pH for H(+)-coupled nucleoside transport, pH 5.5, under both Na(+)-free and Na(+)-containing conditions. In mNect.hCNT3-expressing cells (but not under negative control conditions) the rate of acidification increased in media containing 0.5 mm uridine, providing the first direct evidence for H(+)-coupled uridine transport. At pH 5.5, there was no significant difference in uridine transport rates (coupled H+ flux) in the presence or absence of Na+ (1.09 +/- 0.11 or 1.18 +/- 0.32 mm min(-1), respectively). This suggests that in acidic Na(+)-containing conditions, 1 Na+ and 1 H+ are transported per uridine molecule, while in acidic Na(+)-free conditions, 1 H+ alone is transported/uridine. In acid environments, including renal proximal tubule, H+/nucleoside co-transport may drive nucleoside accumulation by hCNT3. Fusion of mNect to hCNT3 provided a simple, self-referencing, and effective way to monitor nucleoside transport, suggesting an approach that may have applications in assays of transport activity of other H(+)-coupled transport proteins.
Sentence comprehension in agrammatic aphasia: history and variability to clinical implications. - Clinical linguistics & phonetics
Individuals with Broca's aphasia often present with deficits in their ability to comprehend non-canonical sentences. This has been contrastingly characterized as a systematic loss of specific grammatical abilities or as individual variability in the dynamics between processing load and resource availability. The present study investigated sentence level comprehension in participants with Broca's aphasia in an attempt to integrate these contrasting views into a clinically useful process. Two participants diagnosed with Broca's aphasia were assessed using a sentence-to-picture matching paradigm and a truth-value judgement task, across sentence constructions thought to be problematic for this population. The data demonstrate markedly different patterns of performance between participants, as well as variability within participants (e.g. by sentence type). These findings support the notion of individual performance variability in persons with aphasia. Syntactic theory was instructive for assessing sentence level comprehension, leading to a clinically relevant process of identifying treatment targets considering both performance variability and syntactic complexity for this population.
Interaction of integrin-linked kinase with the kidney chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, kAE1. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney alpha-intercalated cells, thereby facilitating bicarbonate reabsorption into the blood. Human kAE1 lacks the N-terminal 65 residues of the erythroid form (AE1, band 3), which are essential for binding of cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a serine/threonine kinase, and an actin-binding protein as an interacting partner with the N-terminal domain of kAE1. Interaction between kAE1 and ILK was confirmed in co-expression experiments in HEK 293 cells and is mediated by a previously unidentified calponin homology domain in the kAE1 N-terminal region. The calponin homology domain of kAE1 binds the C-terminal catalytic domain of ILK to enhance association of kAE1 with the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of ILK increased kAE1 levels at the cell surface as shown by flow cytometry, cell surface biotinylation, and anion transport activity assays. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that ILK associates with kAE1 early in biosynthesis, likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. ILK co-localized with kAE1 at the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and in alpha-intercalated cells of human kidneys. Taken together these results suggest that ILK and kAE1 traffic together from the endoplasmic reticulum to the basolateral membrane. ILK may provide a linkage between kAE1 and the underlying actin cytoskeleton to stabilize kAE1 at the basolateral membrane, resulting in higher levels of cell surface expression.
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