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Cell Phone-Related Near Accidents Among Young Drivers: Associations With Mindfulness. - The Journal of psychology
Cell phone use while driving (CPWD) has been shown to significantly reduce driver safety. This is a particular concern among young drivers who possess less driving experience and tend to engage in high rates of cell phone use. The present study identified psychological predictors of near accidents related to CPWD among a sample of 385 college student drivers. Participants answered a series of questions regarding their use of a cell phone while driving and completed measures of mindfulness, polychronicity, and intrusive thinking. Students who reported talking on their phone or texting more frequently while driving reported a higher incidence of near accidents related to each behavior. However, after controlling for CPWD, multiple regression analysis indicated that those who reported experiencing more cell phone-related intrusive thoughts also experienced more near accidents. Furthermore, two facets of mindfulness-acting with awareness and nonjudging of inner experience-were negatively associated with near accidents. These findings suggest that individuals who are more aware of the present moment and accepting of their affective responses may better regulate their attention while using a cell phone behind the wheel.
Aging and random task switching: the role of endogenous versus exogenous task selection. - Experimental aging research
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Task switching research typically emphasizes two robust shifting effects between competing tasks: mixing costs (MCs), which indicate less efficient performance in mixed-task versus single-task conditions, and switch costs (SCs), which reflect differences between switch trials and repetition trials within mixed-task conditions. The current study examined age-related MC and SC influenced by the method of task selection in two procedures.Twenty-six young adults, 18 to 21 years of age (M = 18.4, SD = 1.1), and 25 older adults, 74 to 87 years of age (M = 80.3, SD = 5.4), participated as part of the Cognition, Health, and Aging Project (CHAP). Younger and older adults' performed cued and voluntary task switching, requiring a random sequence of task changes, placing demands on externally versus internally directed processes.Results indicated that SCs were not disproportionately larger for older adults during an exogenous switching condition, but large age differences in MCs were present beyond the degree predicted by differences in baseline speed. In an endogenous switching condition, small age differences were present both for MCs and SCs, although further age differences were evident in older adults' reduced switch rates.These findings suggest that older adults are substantially slower at updating repeated task sets during exogenous switching, but partially counter these effects by adopting a more persistent within-set mode of processing during endogenous switching.
3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitro-5-arylpyrazoles are novel K(ATP) channel agonists. - Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
This communication describes the discovery and synthesis of a series of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitro-5-arylpyrazoles as potent K(ATP) channel agonists. The most potent compound reported is ca. 100-fold more potent than diazoxide and exhibits selectivity for the SUR1 K(ATP) channel subtype. The 4-nitro substitutent on the pyrazole ring was required for activity, and limited SAR suggests that the de-protonated pyrazole maybe the active species.
Synthesis and evaluation of 7-substituted-3-cyclobutylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives as K(ATP) channel agonists. - Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
A series of 7-substituted-3-cyclobutylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated as K(ATP) channel agonists using the inside-out excised patch clamp technique. The most active compounds were approximately 20-fold more potent than diazoxide in opening K(ATP) channels. A linear relationship exists between the potency of the compound and the sigma value of the 7-substituent with electron-withdrawing groups exhibiting higher activity. These compounds may be useful in modulating insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and in diseases associated with hyperinsulinemia.
High Prevalence of Obesity and High Blood Pressure in Urban Student-Athletes. - The Journal of pediatrics
To assess the prevalence of obesity and hypertension-level blood pressures in an urban, athletic adolescent population using preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) data.The Athlete Health Organization provides free preparticipation physical evaluations to Philadelphia student-athletes via an annual mass-screening event. From 2009 to 2012, Athlete Health Organization personnel performed PPEs on more than 2700 middle school and high school athletes. The PPE included biometric information, a history, and a physical examination. Medical volunteers measured blood pressures using a manual blood pressure cuff with an aneroid manometer. The data from each PPE were collected and analyzed for prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension-level blood pressure readings.A large percentage of student-athletes were found to be overweight (20%) or obese (24.0%). Many of these athletes also had stage 1 or 2 level blood pressure readings (14.8%), a finding which strongly correlated with elevated body mass index (Pâ€‰<â€‰.00001).The cardiovascular health of this urban adolescent athletic population is a major concern because their rates of obesity and elevated blood pressure place them at increased risk of cardiovascular complications later in life despite their participation in school athletics.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Here, There and Nowhere: Following Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer A Case Report of Recurrent Osteosarcoma in a Young Adult. - Rhode Island medical journal (2013)
Approximately 1 in 285 children in the United States (US) will be diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20.1 More than 80% of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors.2 As of January, 2010, there are more than 380,000 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the US.3 More than two-thirds of survivors will develop chronic conditions.4 Professional organizations have advocated for specialized risk-based care of survivors.5 Locally and nationally, lack of transition services and insurance coverage are barriers to care of these adult survivors.6 We describe one such case to illustrate these challenges and their impact. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-08.asp, free with no login].
Transitions to Adult Care for Rhode Island Youth with Special Healthcare Needs. - Rhode Island medical journal (2013)
The transitioning of youth from pediatric to adult care systems is often fraught with discontinuity, miscommunication and gaps in care. This is most significant for youth with special health care needs. A panel discussion on transitioning youth to adult care systems that was part of a learning collaborative held by The RI Care Transformation Collaborative (CTC) is presented here, illustrated by a pertinent case of a youth with type 1 diabetes. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-08.asp, free with no login].
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