9299 Coral Reef Dr Suite 203
Palmetto Bay FL 33157
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Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery. - Science translational medicine
The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques.Copyright Â© 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
A metagenomic approach from aphid's hemolymph sheds light on the potential roles of co-existing endosymbionts. - Microbiome
Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory symbiont present in aphids, supplying essential nutrients that are missing in the plants phloem to its host. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the main vector of the banana bunchy top virus, one of the most damageable viruses in banana. This aphid is carrying two symbionts: B. aphidicola (BPn) and Wolbachia sp. (wPn). The high occurrence of Wolbachia in the banana aphid raises questions about the role it plays in this insect. The goal of this study was to go further in the understanding of the role played by the two symbionts in P. nigronervosa. To do so, microinjection tests were made to see the effect of wPn elimination on the host, and then, high-throughput sequencing of the haemolymph was used to analyze the gene content of the symbionts.We observed that the elimination of wPn systematically led to the death of aphids, suggesting that the bacterium could play a mutualistic role. In addition, we identify and annotate 587 and 250 genes for wPn and BPn, respectively, through high-throughput sequencing. Analysis of these genes suggests that the two bacteria are working together for the production of several essential nutrients. The most striking cases are for lysin and riboflavin which are usually provided by B. aphidicola alone to the host. In the banana aphid, the genes involved in the production pathways of these metabolites are shared between the two bacteria making them both essential for the survival of the aphid host.Our results suggest that a co-obligatory symbiosis between B. aphidicola and Wolbachia occurs in the banana aphid, the two bacteria acting together to supply essential nutrients to the host. This is, to our knowledge, the first time Wolbachia is reported to play an essential role in aphids.
Smart tissue anastomosis robot (STAR): a vision-guided robotics system for laparoscopic suturing. - IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering
This paper introduces the smart tissue anastomosis robot (STAR). Currently, the STAR is a proof-of-concept for a vision-guided robotic system featuring an actuated laparoscopic suturing tool capable of executing running sutures from image-based commands. The STAR tool is designed around a commercially available laparoscopic suturing tool that is attached to a custom-made motor stage and the STAR supervisory control architecture that enables a surgeon to select and track incisions and the placement of stitches. The STAR supervisory-control interface provides two modes: A manual mode that enables a surgeon to specify the placement of each stitch and an automatic mode that automatically computes equally-spaced stitches based on an incision contour. Our experiments on planar phantoms demonstrate that the STAR in either mode is more accurate, up to four times more consistent and five times faster than surgeons using state-of-the-art robotic surgical system, four times faster than surgeons using manual Endo360(Â°)Â®, and nine times faster than surgeons using manual laparoscopic tools.
Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters. - Surgical endoscopy
Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers.A hand-tracking system (Kinectâ„¢-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks.da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89Â ms, followed by Mantis with 374Â ms and 3Gear with 576Â ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49Â mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7Â mm compared with 0.5Â mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72Â mm compared with Mantis's 1.61Â mm and 3Gear's 2.41Â mm (p value 0.00078).Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could become a reality with some technical improvements.
Interaction of VPg-Pro of turnip mosaic virus with the translation initiation factor 4E and the poly(A)-binding protein in planta. - The Journal of general virology
The viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) interacts in vitro with the translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of TuMV infection on eIF4E expression. Two isomers are present in plants, namely eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. Expression of the latter was detected in both TuMV-infected and mock-inoculated Brassica perviridis plants, but expression of eIF4E was found only in infected plants. Membranes from TuMV-infected or mock-inoculated tissues were separated by sucrose gradient centrifugation and fractions were collected. Immunoblot analyses showed that 6K(2)-VPg-Pro/VPg-Pro polyproteins were associated with endoplasmic reticulum membranes and were the viral forms likely to interact with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E. In planta interaction between 6K(2)-VPg-Pro/VPg-Pro and eIF(iso)4E/eIF4E was confirmed by co-purification by metal chelation chromatography. The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) was also found to co-purify with VPg-Pro. Direct interaction between VPg-Pro and PABP was shown by an ELISA-based binding assay. These experiments suggest that a multi-protein complex may form around VPg-Pro of TuMV.
Interaction in vitro between the proteinase of Tomato ringspot virus (genus Nepovirus) and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor iso4E from Arabidopsis thaliana. - The Journal of general virology
Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF(iso)4E binds to the cap structure of mRNAs leading to assembly of the translation complex. This factor also interacts with the potyvirus VPg and this interaction has been correlated with virus infectivity. In this study, we show an interaction between eIF(iso)4E and the proteinase (Pro) of a nepovirus (Tomato ringspot virus; ToRSV) in vitro. The ToRSV VPg did not interact with eIF(iso)4E although its presence on the VPg-Pro precursor increased the binding affinity of Pro for the initiation factor. A major determinant of the interaction was mapped to the first 93 residues of Pro. Formation of the complex was inhibited by addition of m(7)GTP (a cap analogue), suggesting that Pro-containing molecules compete with cellular mRNAs for eIF(iso)4E binding. The possible implications of this interaction for translation and/or replication of the virus genome are discussed.
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