388 Rue De Gabriel Apt C9
Natchitoches LA 71457
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Macroscopic and microscopic study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate-DMSO mixtures. - The journal of physical chemistry. B
Macroscopic (steady-state viscosity, density) and microscopic (NMR chemical shifts, (1)H NMR relaxation times, and diffusion) properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc])-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture were studied in detail as a function of DMSO molar fraction at various temperatures. Temperature dependencies were used to calculate the activation energies. NMR results indicate that at low molar fraction of DMSO (<0.4), it weakly associates with the cation and in doing so disrupts the strong ion-ion association that exists in the pure ionic liquid. Stokes-Einstein equation, which linearly correlates the diffusion coefficient of a spherical molecule and macroscopic viscosity, was shown to work well for the [EMIM][OAc]-DMSO mixture. The influence of DMSO on the "anomalous" diffusion in [EMIM][OAc] ("quick" cation vs "slow" anion) was investigated; it was demonstrated that DMSO makes the cation diffusion slower. All parameters studied showed relatively small deviations from the ideal mixing rule behavior (from 20% to 50% difference between experimental and theoretically predicted results), confirming weak interactions between the components.
Phase diagram, solubility limit and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in binary solvents with ionic liquid. - Carbohydrate polymers
Cellulose solubility phase diagrams in two binary solvents based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) mixed with water and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were built. The minimal amount of EmimAc molecules needed to dissolve cellulose is 2.5-3moles per anhydroglucose unit. This proportion allows calculation of the maximal cellulose concentration soluble in EmimAc-DMSO at any composition; in EmimAc it is around 25-27wt%. Water forms hydrogen bonds with EmimAc and thus competes with cellulose for ionic liquid; the solubility of cellulose in EmimAc-water is much lower than that in EmimAc-DMSO. Hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in two solvent systems were compared. In EmimAc-DMSO cellulose intrinsic viscosity practically does not depend on DMSO content as predicted by the phase diagram. The intrinsic viscosity in EmimAc-water first increases with water content due to cellulose self-aggregation and then abruptly decreases due to coagulation.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Detection and molecular characterization of noroviruses and sapoviruses in children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam. - Journal of medical virology
Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are recognized as important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study, the prevalence and genetic variability of NoV and SaV were determined in hospitalized children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 501 fecal specimens collected between November-2007 and October-2008, that previously had been tested for rotavirus (RV), were tested for NoV and SaV by realtime RT-PCR. Positive samples were genotyped by conventional RT-PCR followed by sequencing. GII NoV was detected in 180 (36%) and SaV in 7 (1.4%) of the samples. NoV was detected year-round ranging from 9.5% in April to 81.5% in September among RV negative samples. NoV GII.4 Minerva (2006b) was the dominant genotype (93%) with a few other genotypes detected including GII.3 (4.4%), GII.13 (1.7%), and GII.2 (0.6%) but no GI strains. Only GI and GII SaV strains were detected in this study. No difference in NoV prevalence between age groups was noted. Frequency of vomiting or fever was similar between children with NoV and RV infection, yet, NoV caused diarrhea with longer duration. In conclusion, NoV is the second most frequent cause of diarrhea in hospitalized children in North Vietnam.Copyright Â© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Viscosity of cellulose-imidazolium-based ionic liquid solutions. - The journal of physical chemistry. B
The viscosities of microcrystalline cellulose dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) and in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) were studied in detail as a function of polymer concentration and temperature. The goal was to compare the flow of solutions, macromolecule hydrodynamic properties in each solvent, and the activation energies of viscous flow. Intrinsic viscosities were determined using the truncated form of the general Huggins equation. In both solvents cellulose intrinsic viscosity decreases with increasing temperature, indicating the decrease of solvent thermodynamic quality. The activation energies for both types of cellulose solutions were calculated. For cellulose-EMIMAc the Arrhenius plot showed a concave shape, and thus the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) approach was used. We suggest an improved method of data analysis for the determination of VTF constants and demonstrate that cellulose-EMIMAc solution viscosity obeys VTF formalism. Once the dependences of Arrhenius activation energy and VTF pseudo-activation energy were obtained for the whole range of concentrations studied, they were all shown to be described by a simple power-law function of polymer concentration.
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388 Rue De Gabriel Apt C9 Natchitoches, LA 71457
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