9849 Kenworthy St
El Paso TX 79924
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Fetal Aortic Arch Anomalies: Key Sonographic Views for Their Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Implications Using the Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Protocol. - Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Aortic arch anomalies are present in 1% to 2% of the general population and are commonly associated with congenital heart disease, chromosomal defects, and tracheaesophageal compression in postnatal life. The sonographically based detection of aortic arch anomalies lies in the 3-vessel and trachea view. Although highly sensitive, this view alone does not allow identification of the aortic arch branching pattern, which prevents an accurate diagnosis. The systematic addition of a subclavian artery view as part of a standardized procedure may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. We describe the sonographic assessment of fetal aortic arch anomalies by combining 2 fetal transverse views: the 3-vessel and trachea view and the subclavian artery view, which are included in the cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation protocol. We also review the sonographic findings and the clinical implications of fetal aortic arch anomalies.Â© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and digital retinography for diabetic retinopathy screening: the multicenter Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study. - Diabetology & metabolic syndrome
Diabetic retinopathy is the main cause of preventable blindness in the economically active population in western countries. Diabetic retinopathy screening is effective in preventing blindness and can be performed through various diagnostic methods. Our objective is to compare binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) to telemedicine protocols of digital retinography for diabetic retinopathy screening in a large and heterogenous type 1 diabetes population in a developing country.Data from 1266 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients from a Brazilian multicenter study were analyzed. Patients underwent BIO and digital retinography, non-mydriatic and mydriatic. Images were sent to a reading center in a telemedicine protocol. Agreement between the different methods was calculated with kappa statistic for diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy classification. Clinical outcome was either observation or referral to specialist.Agreement between BIO and mydriatic retinography was substantial (kappa 0.67-0.74) for diabetic retinopathy observation vs referral classification. Agreement was fair to moderate (kappa 0.24-0.45) between retinography and BIO for maculopathy. Poor mydriasis was the main obstacle to image reading and classification, especially on the non-mydriatic strategy, occurring in 11.9Â % of right eyes and 16.9Â % of left eyes.Mydriatic retinography showed a substantial agreement to BIO for diabetic retinopathy observation vs referral classification. A significant amount of information was lost on the non-mydriatic technique because of poor mydriasis. We recommend a telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening strategy with digital mydriatic retinography, preferably with 2 fields, and advise against non-mydriatic retinography in developing countries.
Thioredoxin interacting protein expression in the urinary sediment associates with renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. - Free radical research
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), an inhibitor of antioxidant thioredoxin (Trx), is upregulated by hyperglycemia and implicated in pathogenesis of diabetes complications. We evaluated mRNA expressions of genes encoding TXNIP and Trx (TXN) in urinary sediment and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with different degrees of chronic complications.qPCR was employed to quantify target genes in urinary sediment (nâ€‰=â€‰55) and PBMC (nâ€‰=â€‰161) from patients sorted by presence or absence of diabetic nephropathy (DN), retinopathy, peripheral and cardiovascular neuropathy; 26 healthy controls and 13 patients presenting non-diabetic nephropathy (focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, FSGS) were also included.Regarding the urinary sediment, TXNIP (but not TXN) expression was higher in T1D (pâ€‰=â€‰0.0023) and FSGS (pâ€‰=â€‰0.0027) patients versus controls. Expressions of TXNIP and TXN were higher, respectively, in T1D patients with versus without DN (pâ€‰=â€‰0.032) and in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)â€‰<â€‰60 versusâ€‰â‰¥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (pâ€‰=â€‰0.008). eGFR negatively correlated with TXNIP (pâ€‰=â€‰0.04, râ€‰=â€‰-0.28) and TXN (pâ€‰=â€‰0.04, râ€‰=â€‰-0.30) expressions. T1D patients who lostâ€‰â‰¥5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yearly of eGFR presented higher basal TXNIP expression than those who lostâ€‰<5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yearly after median follow-up of 24 months. TXNIP (pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001) and TXN (pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) expressions in PBMC of T1D patients were significantly higher than in controls but no differences were observed between patients with or without chronic complications.TXNIP and TXN are upregulated in urinary sediment of T1D patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but only TXNIP expression is associated with magnitude of eGFR decline.
Prenatal Sonographic Features of a Double Aortic Arch: Literature Review and Perinatal Management. - Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
A double aortic arch is a relatively uncommon anomaly occasionally associated with congenital heart disease or the chromosome 22q11 deletion. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of a double aortic arch in which the sonographic features in the 3-vessel and trachea view are highlighted. A PubMed-based search was made to retrieve all cases of prenatal diagnosis of double aortic arch. A total of 13 articles and 35 cases were found. The average gestational age at diagnosis was 29 weeks. Six cases had associated cardiac anomalies. Only 1 case had the 22q11 deletion, showing extracardiac anomalies without cardiac defect. The postnatal evolution was characterized by symptoms of tracheoesophageal compression in 72.4% of the cases. Detection of a double aortic arch should be followed by a thorough fetal scan and echocardiography, and a chromosomal study should be considered when the sonographic findings are consistent with the 22q11 deletion.Â© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Patterns of fetal lung growth in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. - The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
To evaluate right lung growth pattern in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (iL-CDH) and to analyze the pattern according to postnatal outcome.Lung-to-head ratio (LHR) and observed-to-expected LHR (O/E LHR) were obtained in 58 cases. Correlation and regression analysis for the total number of measurements, general linear models for those cases with a least three serial measurements and linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the influence of gestational age on the right lung size. Cases expectantly managed and those with fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion were analyzed separately.LHR, but not O/E LHR, increased significantly with gestational age (GA) (râ€‰=â€‰0.43, pâ€‰=â€‰0.003 and râ€‰=â€‰-0.13, pâ€‰=â€‰0.30, respectively). According to neonatal mortality, in those fetuses that died, LHR remained unchanged and O/E LHR decreased significantly with GA (râ€‰=â€‰0.07, pâ€‰=â€‰0.65 and râ€‰=â€‰-0.37, pâ€‰=â€‰0.02, respectively). In those cases with at least three serial measurements, the same two patterns were found. Similarly, in cases with expectant management, surviving fetuses showed a significantly higher weekly increase in LHR (pâ€‰=â€‰0.01) and a trend to a lower weekly decrease in O/E LHR (pâ€‰=â€‰0.17) than in those that died.Patterns of right lung growth in iL-CDH differ according to postnatal survival. Serial measurements, but not a single one, might increase the prediction of neonatal death.
p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate. - Oncotarget
The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.
An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway. - Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.
MSAP markers and global cytosine methylation in plants: a literature survey and comparative analysis for a wild-growing species. - Molecular ecology resources
Methylation of DNA cytosines affects whether transposons are silenced and genes are expressed, and is a major epigenetic mechanism whereby plants respond to environmental change. Analyses of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MS-AFLP or MSAP) have been often used to assess methyl-cytosine changes in response to stress treatments and, more recently, in ecological studies of wild plant populations. MSAP technique does not require a sequenced reference genome and provides many anonymous loci randomly distributed over the genome for which the methylation status can be ascertained. Scoring of MSAP data, however, is not straightforward, and efforts are still required to standardize this step to make use of the potential to distinguish between methylation at different nucleotide contexts. Furthermore, it is not known how accurately MSAP infers genome-wide cytosine methylation levels in plants. Here, we analyse the relationship between MSAP results and the percentage of global cytosine methylation in genomic DNA obtained by HPLC analysis. A screening of literature revealed that methylation of cytosines at cleavage sites assayed by MSAP was greater than genome-wide estimates obtained by HPLC, and percentages of methylation at different nucleotide contexts varied within and across species. Concurrent HPLC and MSAP analyses of DNA from 200 individuals of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus confirmed that methyl-cytosine was more frequent in CCGG contexts than in the genome as a whole. In this species, global methylation was unrelated to methylation at the inner CG site. We suggest that global HPLC and context-specific MSAP methylation estimates provide complementary information whose combination can improve our current understanding of methylation-based epigenetic processes in nonmodel plants.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The thy-box for sonographic assessment of the fetal thymus: nomogram and review of the literature. - Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal thy-box visualization and to set normative data for the fetal thymus using this technique.We performed a cross-sectional observational study in pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy who attended the fetal medicine unit of the Hospital Gregorio MaraÃ±Ã³n from March 2011 to March 2013. Using thy-box sonography, which sets boundaries within the thymus, we assessed the feasibility of the thy-box and analyzed the factors related to its visualization. Measurements of the thy-box anteroposterior and transverse diameters were performed in healthy fetuses. Interobserver agreement was studied for both items. We set normative data for the thy-box diameters in singleton and twin pregnancies.A total of 337 patients from 15 to 37 weeks were recruited after exclusion criteria. Thy-box feasibility was 74.2% (250 of 337). Nonfeasible cases were related to the fetal anterior spine and advanced gestational age. Assessment of the thy-box anteroposterior and transverse diameters was achievable in 250 fetuses. Interobserver agreement was good for feasibility and measurements (Îº = 0.80). Linear growth of the thy-box in both diameters was observed in relation to gestational age during the second half of pregnancy. Thy-box diameters did not show significant differences according to the type of gestation, fetal sex, or chorionicity.Thy-box diameters are achievable and reproducible by sonography in normal singleton and twin pregnancies during the second trimester; however, although feasible, the thy-box transverse diameter measurement is not reliable beyond 28 weeks. Further studies are needed to evaluate thy-box diameters in pathologic cases, especially conotruncal anomalies.Â© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Reference ranges for the pulsatility index of the fetal aortic isthmus in singleton and twin pregnancies. - Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
The purpose of this study was to estimate reference ranges for the pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal aortic isthmus in uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancies during the second half of pregnancy.We conducted a cross-sectional observational study involving 543 healthy fetuses: 361 singleton pregnancies and 182 twin pregnancies between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The aortic isthmus PI was measured in 2 sonographic planes: the longitudinal aortic arch view and the 3-vessel and trachea view. We evaluated the reproducibility of aortic isthmus PI measurements between these planes by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Scans were performed by 2 physicians, and intraobserver agreement was also measured. Regression analysis was used to estimate gestational age reference values for the aortic isthmus PI.The aortic isthmus PI was significantly correlated with gestational age in singletons and twins during the second half of pregnancy (P < .01). We did not find significant differences between reference ranges in singletons and twins or between the sonographic views.This study offers reference ranges for the aortic isthmus PI during the second half of gestation in singleton and twin pregnancies. Mean aortic isthmus PI values were similar in both types of gestations as well as both sonographic views. The aortic isthmus PI may be reliably obtained from either sonographic view.Â© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
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9849 Kenworthy St El Paso, TX 79924
5130 Fairbanks Dr
9870 Gateway Blvd N Ste B7