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A PCR assay for the quantification of growth of the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis in Arabidopsis thaliana. - Molecular plant pathology
The accurate quantification of disease severity is important for the assessment of host-pathogen interactions in laboratory or field settings. The interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and its naturally occurring downy mildew pathogen, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), is a widely used reference pathosystem for plant-oomycete interactions. Current methods for the assessment of disease severity in the Arabidopsis-Hpa interaction rely on measurements at the terminal stage of pathogen development; namely, visual counts of spore-producing structures or the quantification of spore production with a haemocytometer. These assays are useful, but do not offer sensitivity for the robust quantification of small changes in virulence or the accurate quantification of pathogen growth prior to the reproductive stage. Here, we describe a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the monitoring of Hpa growth inâ€‰planta. The protocol is rapid, inexpensive and can robustly distinguish small changes in virulence. We used this assay to investigate the dynamics of early Hpa mycelial growth and to demonstrate the proof of concept that this assay could be used in screens for novel oomycete growth inhibitors.Â© 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. Strain ML3W, Isolated from Wings of Myotis lucifugus Infected with White Nose Syndrome. - Genome announcements
Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W was isolated from the wing of a bat infected with white nose syndrome. We report the complete 5.33-Mb genome sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. strain ML3W, obtained using Pacific Biosciences technology. Being the second complete Sphingobacterium sequence, this will increase knowledge of the genus.Copyright Â© 2015 Smith et al.
The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology. - Molecular plant pathology
Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens which threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant-pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. This article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research.Â© 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
The exocyst subunit Exo70B1 is involved in the immune response of Arabidopsis thaliana to different pathogens and cell death. - Plant signaling & behavior
Components of the vesicle trafficking machinery are central to the immune response in plants. The role of vesicle trafficking during pre-invasive penetration resistance has been well documented. However, emerging evidence also implicates vesicle trafficking in early immune signaling. Here we report that Exo70B1, a subunit of the exocyst complex which mediates early tethering during exocytosis is involved in resistance. We show that exo70B1 mutants display pathogen-specific immuno-compromised phenotypes. We also show that exo70B1 mutants display lesion-mimic cell death, which in combination with the reduced responsiveness to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) results in complex immunity-related phenotypes.
Crosstalk between the circadian clock and innate immunity in Arabidopsis. - PLoS pathogens
The circadian clock integrates temporal information with environmental cues in regulating plant development and physiology. Recently, the circadian clock has been shown to affect plant responses to biotic cues. To further examine this role of the circadian clock, we tested disease resistance in mutants disrupted in CCA1 and LHY, which act synergistically to regulate clock activity. We found that cca1 and lhy mutants also synergistically affect basal and resistance gene-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Disrupting the circadian clock caused by overexpression of CCA1 or LHY also resulted in severe susceptibility to P. syringae. We identified a downstream target of CCA1 and LHY, GRP7, a key constituent of a slave oscillator regulated by the circadian clock and previously shown to influence plant defense and stomatal activity. We show that the defense role of CCA1 and LHY against P. syringae is at least partially through circadian control of stomatal aperture but is independent of defense mediated by salicylic acid. Furthermore, we found defense activation by P. syringae infection and treatment with the elicitor flg22 can feedback-regulate clock activity. Together this data strongly supports a direct role of the circadian clock in defense control and reveal for the first time crosstalk between the circadian clock and plant innate immunity.
The ubiquitin ligase PUB22 targets a subunit of the exocyst complex required for PAMP-triggered responses in Arabidopsis. - The Plant cell
Plant pathogens are perceived by pattern recognition receptors, which are activated upon binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Ubiquitination and vesicle trafficking have been linked to the regulation of immune signaling. However, little information exists about components of vesicle trafficking involved in immune signaling and the mechanisms that regulate them. In this study, we identified Arabidopsis thaliana Exo70B2, a subunit of the exocyst complex that mediates vesicle tethering during exocytosis, as a target of the plant U-box-type ubiquitin ligase 22 (PUB22), which acts in concert with PUB23 and PUB24 as a negative regulator of PAMP-triggered responses. We show that Exo70B2 is required for both immediate and later responses triggered by all tested PAMPs, suggestive of a role in signaling. Exo70B2 is also necessary for the immune response against different pathogens. Our data demonstrate that PUB22 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of Exo70B2 via the 26S Proteasome. Furthermore, degradation is regulated by the autocatalytic turnover of PUB22, which is stabilized upon PAMP perception. We therefore propose a mechanism by which PUB22-mediated degradation of Exo70B2 contributes to the attenuation of PAMP-induced signaling.
Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants. - The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) contains at least 134 candidate RXLR effector genes. Only a small subset of these genes is conserved in related oomycetes from the Phytophthora genus. Here, we describe a comparative functional characterization of the Hpa RXLR effector gene HaRxL96 and a homologous gene, PsAvh163, from the Glycine max (soybean) pathogen Phytophthora sojae. HaRxL96 and PsAvh163 are induced during the early stages of infection and carry a functional RXLR motif that is sufficient for protein uptake into plant cells. Both effectors can suppress immune responses in soybean. HaRxL96 suppresses immunity in Nicotiana benthamiana, whereas PsAvh163 induces an HR-like cell death response in Nicotiana that is dependent on RAR1 and Hsp90.1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL96 or PsAvh163 exhibit elevated susceptibility to virulent and avirulent Hpa, as well as decreased callose deposition in response to non-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae. Both effectors interfere with defense marker gene induction, but do not affect salicylic acid biosynthesis. Together, these experiments demonstrate that evolutionarily conserved effectors from different oomycete species can suppress immunity in plant species that are divergent from the source pathogen's host.Â© 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal Â© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Structure of factor H-binding protein B (FhbB) of the periopathogen, Treponema denticola: insights into progression of periodontal disease. - The Journal of biological chemistry
Periodontitis is the most common disease of microbial etiology in humans. Periopathogen survival is dependent upon evasion of complement-mediated destruction. Treponema denticola, an important contributor to periodontitis, evades killing by the alternative complement cascade by binding factor H (FH) to its surface. Bound FH is rapidly cleaved by the T. denticola protease, dentilisin. In this report, the structure of the T. denticola FH-binding protein, FhbB, was solved to 1.7 â„« resolution. FhbB possesses a unique fold that imparts high thermostability. The kinetics of the FH/FhbB interaction were assessed using surface plasmon resonance. A K(D) value in the micromolar range (low affinity) was demonstrated, and rapid off kinetics were observed. Site-directed mutagenesis and sucrose octasulfate competition assays collectively indicate that the negatively charged face of FhbB binds within FH complement control protein module 7. This study provides significant new insight into the molecular basis of FH/FhbB interaction and advances our understanding of the role that T. denticola plays in the development and progression of periodontal disease.
Tick salivary proteins offer the lyme disease spirochetes an easy ride and another way to hide. - Cell host & microbe
The ability of the Lyme disease spirochetes to establish an infection in mammals is dependent in part on proteins of tick origin. Schuijt etÂ al. (2011) investigate the role of the tick-derived protein, TSLPI, in spirochete transmission and in the evasion of killing by the lectin complement pathway.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crystallization of the factor H-binding protein, FhbB, from the periopathogen Treponema denticola. - Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications
Treponema denticola is a primary etiological agent of periodontal disease. T.Â denticola evades complement-mediated killing by binding to the host's factor H (FH), a negative regulator of the alternative complement pathway. The T.Â denticola FH-binding protein has been identified and designated as factor H-binding protein B (FhbB). Crystals of recombinant FhbB were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using sodium citrate and 0.2â€…M sodium thiocyanate. FhbB crystals diffracted to 1.8â€…Ã… resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2 or P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.76, c = 167.68â€…Ã…. Two FhbB molecules per asymmetric unit gave a Matthews coefficient of 2.2â€…Ã…(3)â€…Da(-1) and a solvent content of 44%. FhbB is the smallest bacterially produced FH-binding protein identified to date. Determination of its structure will provide unique insight into the minimal structural determinants required for FH binding.
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