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Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma? - Psychiatry journal
Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability.
Resampling to Address the Winner's Curse in Genetic Association Analysis of Time to Event. - Genetic epidemiology
The "winner's curse" is a subtle and difficult problem in interpretation of genetic association, in which association estimates from large-scale gene detection studies are larger in magnitude than those from subsequent replication studies. This is practically important because use of a biased estimate from the original study will yield an underestimate of sample size requirements for replication, leaving the investigators with an underpowered study. Motivated by investigation of the genetics of type 1 diabetes complications in a longitudinal cohort of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Genetics Study, we apply a bootstrap resampling method in analysis of time to nephropathy under a Cox proportional hazards model, examining 1,213 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 201 candidate genes custom genotyped in 1,361 white probands. Among 15 top-ranked SNPs, bias reduction in log hazard ratio estimates ranges from 43.1% to 80.5%. In simulation studies based on the observed DCCT/EDIC genotype data, genome-wide bootstrap estimates for false-positive SNPs and for true-positive SNPs with low-to-moderate power are closer to the true values than uncorrected naÃ¯ve estimates, but tend to overcorrect SNPs with high power. This bias-reduction technique is generally applicable for complex trait studies including quantitative, binary, and time-to-event traits.Â© 2015 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Correction: Reconstructing Colonization Dynamics of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni following Anthropogenic Environmental Changes in Northwest Senegal. - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003998.].
Scleroderma renal crisis in tropical region: two senegalese cases. - The Pan African medical journal
Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is defined as the new onset of accelerated arterial hypertension and /or rapidly progressive oliguric renal failure during the course of systemic sclerosis. It is a rare but life-threatening complication. This formerly serious complication has got a considerable brighter outlook since the introduction of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) however the mortality is still remaining high. We report two cases of SRC which to our knowledge are the firsts described in Dakar. They were two women aged 45 and 32 years, one of them was previously following for systemic sclerosis. Both of them had malignant hypertension associated with rapidly progressive renal failure, the other was put under corticosteroid therapy four months before SRC occurrence. The histological and laboratory finding showed thrombotic microangiopathy. The height blood pressure returned to normal value after treatment with ACE inhibitors. The final outcome was undesirable with the death of one after two months due to the hemodialysis discontinuation and persistence of renal failure in the other.
Could caregiver reporting adherence help detect virological failure in Cameroonian early treated HIV-infected infants? - BMC pediatrics
Viral load is still the marker of choice for monitoring adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and confirming the success of HIV treatment. Unfortunately it is difficult to access in many resource-poor settings. We aimed to measure the performance of caregiver reporting adherence for detecting virological failure in routine practice during the first 2Â years after cART initiation in infants.PEDIACAM is an ongoing prospective cohort study including HIV1-infected infants diagnosed before 7Â months of age between November 2007 and October 2011 in Cameroon. Adherence was assessed using a questionnaire administered every 3Â months from cART initiation; the HIV-RNA viral load was determined at the same visits. Virological failure was defined as having a viral loadâ€‰â‰¥â€‰1000 cp/mL at 3 and 12Â months after cART initiation or having a viral loadâ€‰â‰¥â€‰400 cp/mL at 24Â months after cART initiation. The performance of each current missed and cumulative missed dose defined according to adherence as reported by caregiver was assessed using the viral load as the gold standard.cART was initiated at a median age of 4Â months (IQR: 3-6) in the 167 infants included. The cumulative missed dose showed the best overall performance for detecting virological failure after 12Â months of cART (AUC test, pâ€‰=â€‰0.005, LRâ€‰+â€‰=4.4 and LR-â€‰=â€‰0.4). Whatever the adherence reporting criterion, the negative predictive value was high (NPVâ€‰â‰¥â€‰75Â %) 12 and 24Â months after cART initiation, whereas the positive predictive value was low (PPVâ€‰â‰¤â€‰50Â %).The adherence questionnaire administered by the health care provider to the infants' caregivers is not reliable for detecting virological failure in routine practice: its positive predictive value is low. However, the cumulative missed dose measurement may be a reliable predictor of virological success, particularly after 12Â months of cART, given its high negative predictive value.
Intra-individual polymorphism in chloroplasts from NGS data: where does it come from and how to handle it? - Molecular ecology resources
Next-generation sequencing allows access to a large quantity of genomic data. In plants, several studies used whole chloroplast genome sequences for inferring phylogeography or phylogeny. Even though the chloroplast is a haploid organelle, NGS plastome data identified a nonnegligible number of intra-individual polymorphic SNPs. Such observations could have several causes such as sequencing errors, the presence of heteroplasmy or transfer of chloroplast sequences in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The occurrence of allelic diversity has practical important impacts on the identification of diversity, the analysis of the chloroplast data and beyond that, significant evolutionary questions. In this study, we show that the observed intra-individual polymorphism of chloroplast sequence data is probably the result of plastid DNA transferred into the mitochondrial and/or the nuclear genomes. We further assess nine different bioinformatics pipelines' error rates for SNP and genotypes calling using SNPs identified in Sanger sequencing. Specific pipelines are adequate to deal with this issue, optimizing both specificity and sensitivity. Our results will allow a proper use of whole chloroplast NGS sequence and will allow a better handling of NGS chloroplast sequence diversity.Â© 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spatio-Temporal Variations in Malaria Incidence in Children Less than 10 Years Old, Health District of Sokone, Senegal, 2010-2013. - PloS one
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Detailed characterization of the risks for malaria, among populations living in areas where the disease is endemic, is an important priority, especially for planning and evaluating future malaria-control tools. A prospective cohort study was implemented in children under ten years living in rural areas with high Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Senegal.Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over three year follow-up among a cohort of children aged less than 10 years old living in eight villages of the Sokone health district. The parents of 1316 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the study health centers at any time their child felt sick. In the event of reported history of fever within 24 hours or measured axillary temperature â‰¥ 37.5Â°C, a Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was performed.From November 2010 to October 2013, among the 1468 reported febrile episodes, 264 were confirmed malaria episodes. Over the 3 years, 218 (16.9%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode. Cumulative malaria incidence was 7.3 episodes per 100 children-year at risk, with remarkably heterogeneous rates from 2.5 to 10.5 episodes per 100 children-year at risk. Clinical malaria prevalence ranged from 11.5 to 28.4% in the high transmission season versus from 9.6 to 21.2% in the low transmission season.This longitudinal community-based study shows that occurrence of clinical malaria was not evenly distributed among all the cohort children in the eight villages. It demonstrates the complexity of spatial distribution of malaria incidence at a local level, even in a region of vegetation and altitudinal homogeneity.
[Risk factors associated with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicentre case-control study]. - Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie
Acute bacterial cellulitis of the leg (erysipelas) is a common problem involving considerable morbidity in dermatology practice in Africa. Previous studies conducted in Europe and North Africa have highlighted lymphoedema and toe-web intertrigo as independent factors associated with leg erysipelas. The aim of this case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa, within a different socio-economic and culture context.We conducted a prospective case-control study in hospital dermatology departments in 8 sub-Saharan African countries over a 12-month period (October 2013 to September 2014). Each case of acute leg cellulitis was matched with 2 controls for age (Â±5 years) and sex. We analysed the general and local factors.During the study period, 364 cases (223 female, 141 male) were matched with 728 controls. The mean age was 42.15Â±15.15 years for patients and 42.11Â±36 years for controls. Multivariate analysis showed the following to be independent risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in our study: obesity (odds ratio [OR]=2.82Â ; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-3.76), lymphoedema (OR=3.87, 95%CI: 2.17-6.89), voluntary cosmetic depigmentation (OR=4.29, 95%CI: 2.35-7.83), neglected traumatic wound (OR=37.2, 95%CI: 24.9-57.72) and toe-web intertrigo (OR=37.86, 95%CI: 22.27-64.5).The results of this study confirms the major role of local risk factors (toe-web intertrigo, lymphoedema) previously identified in other geographical settings. However, the originality of our study consists of the identification of voluntary cosmetic depigmentation as a risk factor for leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott. - Journal of medical entomology
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.Â© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Potential Impact of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Acquisition of Antibodies Against Glutamate-Rich Protein and Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Children Living in Southern Senegal. - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) combined with amodiaquine (AQ) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission. However, a concern is whether SMC can delay the natural acquisition of immunity toward malaria parasites in areas with intense SMC delivery. To investigate this, total IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens glutamate-rich protein R0 (GLURP-R0) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Senegalese children under the age of 10 years in 2010 living in Saraya and Velingara districts (with SMC using SP + AQ [SMC+] since 2007) and Tambacounda district (without SMC (SMC-)). For both P. falciparum antigens, total IgG response were significantly higher in the SMC- compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0, P < 0.001 and for AMA-1, P = 0.001). There was as well a nonsignificant tendency for higher percentage of positive responders in the SMC- compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0: 22.2% versus 14.4%, respectively [P = 0.06]; for AMA-1: 45.6% versus 40.0%, respectively [P = 0.24]). Results suggest that long-term malaria chemoprevention by SMC/SP + AQ have limited impact on the development of acquired immunity, as tested using the P. falciparum antigens GLURP-R0 and AMA-1. However, other factors, not measured in this study, may interfere as well.Â© The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
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