1901 S 1St St
Temple TX 76504
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Branched Peptide, B2088, Disrupts the Supramolecular Organization of Lipopolysaccharides and Sensitizes the Gram-negative Bacteria. - Scientific reports
Dissecting the complexities of branched peptide-lipopolysaccharides (LPS) interactions provide rationale for the development of non-cytotoxic antibiotic adjuvants. Using various biophysical methods, we show that the branched peptide, B2088, binds to lipid A and disrupts the supramolecular organization of LPS. The disruption of outer membrane in an intact bacterium was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy and checkerboard assays, the latter confirming strong to moderate synergism between B2088 and various classes of antibiotics. The potency of synergistic combinations of B2088 and antibiotics was further established by time-kill kinetics, mammalian cell culture infections model and in vivo model of bacterial keratitis. Importantly, B2088 did not show any cytotoxicity to corneal epithelial cells for at least 96â€‰h continuous exposure or hemolytic activity even at 20â€‰mg/ml. Peptide congeners containing norvaline, phenylalanine and tyrosine (instead of valine in B2088) displayed better synergism compared to other substitutions. We propose that high affinity and subsequent disruption of the supramolecular assembly of LPS by the branched peptides are vital for the development of non-cytotoxic antibiotic adjuvants that can enhance the accessibility of conventional antibiotics to the intracellular targets, decrease the antibiotic consumption and holds promise in averting antibiotic resistance.
Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils. - Journal of food science and technology
Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6Â %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70Â Â°C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2) â€‰=â€‰0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4Â % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2) â€‰>â€‰0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2) â€‰=â€‰0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health.
Advanced glycation end products induce differential structural modifications and fibrillation of albumin. - Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
Glycation induced amyloid fibrillation is fundamental to the development of many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular complications. Excessive non-enzymatic glycation in conditions such as hyperglycaemia results in the increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are highly reactive pro-oxidants, which can lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways and development of oxidative stress. Recently, the effect of non-enzymatic glycation on protein structure has been the major research area, but the role of specific AGEs in such structural alteration and induction of fibrillation remains undefined. In this study, we determined the specific AGEs mediated structural modifications in albumin mainly considering carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and argpyrimidine (Arg-P) which are the major AGEs formed in the body. We studied the secondary structural changes based on circular dichroism (CD) and spectroscopic analysis. The AGEs induced fibrillation was determined by Congo red binding and examination of scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The amyloidogenic regions in the sequence of BSA were determined using FoldAmyloid. It was observed that CEL modification of BSA leads to the development of fibrillar structures, which was evident from both secondary structure changes and TEM analysis.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function. - International journal of biological macromolecules
Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isolated mucosal fenestration with localized gingival recession: Closure with an acellular dermal graft. A rare case report with two years' follow-up. - Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985)
Mucosal fenestrations are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and as such their management is not often reported. Their treatment might be further complicated due to a communication with the oral environment, making them more susceptible to accumulation of debris, plaque, and calculus, thereby reducing the probability of mucosal renewal. The aim of the present case report is to highlight one such rare clinical scenario and its apt and effective management. Surgical management of an uncommon presentation of concomitant gingival recession with an isolated mucosal fenestration in an atypical location, with an allograft matrix is presented here with 2 years' follow-up. A review of the literature reveals no previous application of AlloDerm graft for the management of a similar situation.
Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India. - Environmental science and pollution research international
Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10Â years old when compared to less than 5Â years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40Â t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69Â t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.
Nanoformulated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase attenuates vascular cell activation and aortic inflammation in obesity. - Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Endothelial cell (EC) oxidative stress can lead to vascular dysfunction which is an underlying event in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The lack of a potent and bioavailable anti-oxidant enzyme is a major challenge in studies on antioxidant therapy. The objective of this study is to determine whether copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) after nanoformulation (nanoSOD) can effectively reduce EC oxidative stress and/or vascular inflammation in obesity.Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with native- or nanoSOD for 6Â h followed by treatment with linoleic acid (LA), a free fatty acid, for 6-24Â h. To determine the inÂ vivo relevance, the effectiveness of nanoSOD in reducing vascular cell activation was studied in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.We noted that nanoSOD was more effectively taken up by ECs than native SOD. Western blot analysis further confirmed that the intracellular accumulation of SOD1 protein was greatly increased upon nanoSOD treatment. Importantly, nanoSOD pretreatment led to a significant decrease in LA-induced oxidative stress in ECs which was associated with a marked increase in SOD enzyme activity in ECs. InÂ vivo studies showed a significant decrease in markers of EC/vascular cell activation and/or inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thoracic aorta, and heart collected from nanoSOD-treated mice compared to obese control mice. Interestingly, the expression of metallothionein 2, an antioxidant gene was significantly increased in nanoSOD-treated mice.Our data show that nanoSOD is very effective in delivering active SOD to ECs and in reducing EC oxidative stress. Our data also demonstrate that nanoSOD will be a useful tool to reduce vascular cell activation in VAT and aorta in obesity which, in turn, can protect against obesity-associated CVD, in particular, hypertension.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nanoformulated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase reduces adipose inflammation in obesity. - Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
An intimate association exists between oxidative stress and inflammation. Because adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is intricately linked to metabolic disorders, it was hypothesized that reducing oxidative stress would be effective in ameliorating AT inflammation in obesity.Wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 8 weeks followed by a 2-week treatment with nanoformulated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (NanoSOD). The mice were divided into: 1) chow diet, 2) HF, and 3) HF + NanoSOD.The HF + NanoSOD-treated mice showed a significant decrease in plasma and liver triglycerides when compared with HF-fed mice. Interestingly, NanoSOD reduced the expression of macrophage and inflammatory markers in visceral AT (VAT) and stromal cells derived from VAT. Moreover, the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways, in particular, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases, was blunted in VAT on NanoSOD treatment. However, markers of oxidative stress were not altered significantly in the HF + NanoSOD group in the experimental conditions. Pretreatment of either macrophages or adipocytes significantly reduced the inflammatory response invoked in an in vitro coculture system, further supporting the role of NanoSOD in inhibiting obesity-linked inflammation.This data suggest that NanoSOD is effective not only in reducing AT macrophage accumulation and AT inflammation but also in promoting triglyceride metabolism in obesity.Â© 2015 The Obesity Society.
Palatal changes of reverse smokers in a rural coastal Andhra population with review of literature. - Journal of oral and maxillofacial pathology : JOMFP
To investigate and record the palatal changes in individuals habituated to reverse chutta smoking in rural coastal Andhra population.Sixty individuals out of whom 47 females and 13 males habituated to reverse smoking with no other tobacco and alcohol habits and no other systemic disturbances were selected. The palatal changes were recorded by six examiners. Database were searched for the following terms "reverse smokers," "nicotina palatini" and "palatal lesions."The mean and percentage prevalence of the each lesion recorded and agreed by six examiners among 60 subjects showed presence of 87.77% hyperpigmented areas, 64.44% depigmented areas, 51.66% excrescences, 32.22% potentially malignant lesions and 9.72% frank ulcerations.Reverse smoking is an endemic tobacco habit still practiced in the coastal rural Andhra Pradesh. It is a well-established and socially acceptable habit among adult females. The changes recorded clinically shows characteristic features that are unique among this population group.
Sinigrin, a major glucosinolate from cruciferous vegetables restrains non-enzymatic glycation of albumin. - International journal of biological macromolecules
Sinigrin is a major component of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprout, mustard greens and broccoli. The present study demonstrates the protective effects of sinigrin against the non-enzymatic glycation of albumin and lens crystallin based on fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular interaction studies. Sinigrin was found to be a potent inhibitor for both the early (Amadori product) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, the in vitro glycation studies of lens crystallin demonstrated the strong antiglycation activity of sinigrin. Computational studies using molecular docking approach revealed the interaction pattern of sinigrin with BSA and the binding affinity of sinigrin was found to be greater than the other potent natural inhibitors of glycation such as quercetin, apigenin, and curcumin.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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