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Coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 promotes aggressive prostate cancer. - Cancer research
Prostate cancer subtypes are poorly defined and functional validation of drivers of ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancer has not been conducted. Here, we identified an ETS(-) subtype of aggressive prostate cancer (ERG(-)MAP3K7(del)CHD1(del)) and used a novel developmental model and a cell line xenograft model to show that cosuppression of MAP3K7 and CHD1 expression promotes aggressive disease. Analyses of publicly available prostate cancer datasets revealed that MAP3K7 and CHD1 were significantly codeleted in 10% to 20% of localized tumors and combined loss correlated with poor disease-free survival. To evaluate the functional impact of dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss, we suppressed Map3k7 and/or Chd1 expression in mouse prostate epithelial progenitor/stem cells (PrP/SC) and performed tissue recombination experiments in vivo. Dual shMap3k7-shChd1 PrP/SC recombinants displayed massive glandular atypia with regions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma apparent. Combined Map3k7-Chd1 suppression greatly disrupted normal prostatic lineage differentiation; dual recombinants displayed significant androgen receptor loss, increased neuroendocrine differentiation, and increased neural differentiation. Clinical samples with dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss also displayed neuroendocrine and neural characteristics. In addition, dual Map3k7-Chd1 suppression promoted E-cadherin loss and mucin production in recombinants. MAP3K7 and CHD1 protein loss also correlated with Gleason grade and E-cadherin loss in clinical samples. To further validate the phenotype observed in the PrP/SC model, we suppressed MAP3K7 and/or CHD1 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Dual shMAP3K7-shCHD1 LNCaP xenografts displayed increased tumor growth and decreased survival compared with shControl, shMAP3K7, and shCHD1 xenografts. Collectively, these data identify coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 as a unique driver of aggressive prostate cancer development.Â©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Cancer. TERT promoter mutations and telomerase reactivation in urothelial cancer. - Science (New York, N.Y.)
Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic activity, and telomere length. Although previous studies found no relation between TERT promoter mutations and UC patient outcome, we find that elevated TERT mRNA expression strongly correlates with reduced disease-specific survival in two independent UC patient cohorts (n = 35; n = 87). These results suggest that high telomerase activity may be a better marker of aggressive UC tumors than TERT promoter mutations alone.Copyright Â© 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Conformational analysis of triphenylphosphine ligands in stereogenic monometallic complexes: tools for predicting the preferred configuration of the triphenylphosphine rotor. - Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
The extension of our simple model for predicting the propeller configuration of a triphenylphosphine ligand co-ordinated to achiral metal centres to include stereogenic metal systems is described. By considering nadir energy planes (NEP's) and a series of rigid-body calculations, a model has been developed to reliably predict the configuration of the triphenylphosphine rotor of stereogenic metal complexes. For complexes of the form [M(Î·(5)-C5H5)(PPh3)(L(1))(L(2))], where it is assumed that L(1) is larger than L(2), the configuration of the triphenylphosphine rotor may be predicted by viewing a Newman projection along the L(1)-M bond. In the orientation where the PPh3 unit is pointing vertically downwards and the orthogonal L(2) ligand is pointing to the right [i.e., an (RM)-configured complex, assuming that L(2) is ranked higher priority than L(1)], the conformation of L(1) can be expected to place the most sterically demanding substituent in the top-right quadrant. In cases where ligand L(1) still presents a steric incursion towards the PPh3 ligand (any part of L(1) other than H proximal to the PPh3 in the approximate zone -30Â° to +60Â° from the M-P bond) an (M)-configured rotor is expected, and when this interaction is not present a (P)-configured propeller is predicted. Without exception, these rules are consistent with all empirical data (>140 known crystal structures).
RhoC Is an Unexpected Target of RhoGDI2 in Prevention of Lung Colonization of Bladder Cancer. - Molecular cancer research : MCR
RhoGDI2 (ARHGDIB) suppresses metastasis in a variety of cancers but the mechanism is unclear, thus hampering development of human therapeutics. RhoGDI2 is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for the Rho family of GTPases thought to primarily bind to Rac1; however, Rac1 activation was not decreased by RhoGDI2 expression in bladder cancer cells. To better understand the GTPase-binding partners for RhoGDI2, a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach was used in bladder cancer cells. As expected, endogenous RhoGDI2 coimmunoprecipitates with Rac1 and unexpectedly also with RhoC. Further analysis demonstrated that RhoGDI2 negatively regulates RhoC, as knockdown of RhoGDI2 increased RhoC activation in response to serum stimulation. Conversely, overexpression of RhoGDI2 decreased RhoC activation. RhoC promoted bladder cancer cell growth and invasion, as knockdown increased cell doubling time, decreased invasion through Matrigel, and decreased colony formation in soft agar. Importantly, RhoC knockdown reduced in vivo lung colonization by bladder cancer cells following tail vein injection in immunocompromised mice. Finally, unbiased transcriptome analysis revealed a set of genes regulated by RhoGDI2 overexpression and RhoC knockdown in bladder cancer cells.RhoGDI2 suppresses bladder cancer metastatic colonization via negative regulation of RhoC activity, providing a rationale for the development of therapeutics that target RhoC signaling.Â©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
A community computational challenge to predict the activity of pairs of compounds. - Nature biotechnology
Recent therapeutic successes have renewed interest in drug combinations, but experimental screening approaches are costly and often identify only small numbers of synergistic combinations. The DREAM consortium launched an open challenge to foster the development of in silico methods to computationally rank 91 compound pairs, from the most synergistic to the most antagonistic, based on gene-expression profiles of human B cells treated with individual compounds at multiple time points and concentrations. Using scoring metrics based on experimental dose-response curves, we assessed 32 methods (31 community-generated approaches and SynGen), four of which performed significantly better than random guessing. We highlight similarities between the methods. Although the accuracy of predictions was not optimal, we find that computational prediction of compound-pair activity is possible, and that community challenges can be useful to advance the field of in silico compound-synergy prediction.
Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression. - Cancer research
Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo metastasis in an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations showed that Six2 represses E-cadherin expression by upregulating Zeb2, in part, through a microRNA-mediated mechanism and by stimulating promoter methylation of the E-cadherin gene (Cdh1). Clinically, SIX2 expression correlated inversely with CDH1 expression in human breast cancer specimens, corroborating the disease relevance of their interaction. Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin.Â©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Concurrent alterations in TERT, KDM6A, and the BRCA pathway in bladder cancer. - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Genetic analysis of bladder cancer has revealed a number of frequently altered genes, including frequent alterations of the telomerase (TERT) gene promoter, although few altered genes have been functionally evaluated. Our objective is to characterize alterations observed by exome sequencing and sequencing of the TERT promoter, and to examine the functional relevance of histone lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A/UTX), a frequently mutated histone demethylase, in bladder cancer.We analyzed bladder cancer samples from 54 U.S. patients by exome and targeted sequencing and confirmed somatic variants using normal tissue from the same patient. We examined the biologic function of KDM6A using in vivo and in vitro assays.We observed frequent somatic alterations in BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) in 15% of tumors, including deleterious alterations to the deubiquitinase active site and the nuclear localization signal. BAP1 mutations contribute to a high frequency of tumors with breast cancer (BRCA) DNA repair pathway alterations and were significantly associated with papillary histologic features in tumors. BAP1 and KDM6A mutations significantly co-occurred in tumors. Somatic variants altering the TERT promoter were found in 69% of tumors but were not correlated with alterations in other bladder cancer genes. We examined the function of KDM6A, altered in 24% of tumors, and show depletion in human bladder cancer cells, enhanced in vitro proliferation, in vivo tumor growth, and cell migration.This study is the first to identify frequent BAP1 and BRCA pathway alterations in bladder cancer, show TERT promoter alterations are independent of other bladder cancer gene alterations, and show KDM6A loss is a driver of the bladder cancer phenotype.Â©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
MR imaging of benign and malignant biliary conditions. - Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
MR imaging is a noninvasive, radiation-free imaging method for evaluation of the biliary system. Continued advancements in MR imaging system hardware and sequence design, coupled with novel gadolinium chelate agents, allow for a detailed evaluation of the bile ducts and surrounding soft tissues. New hepatocyte-specific contrast agents may hold utility in the anatomic and functional evaluation of bile duct injury. MR imaging is also the imaging method of choice for bile duct tumor diagnosis, staging, and presurgical planning. Familiarity with the proper methodology of MR image acquisition and interpretation is critical for optimized diagnostic assessment.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A community effort to assess and improve drug sensitivity prediction algorithms. - Nature biotechnology
Predicting the best treatment strategy from genomic information is a core goal of precision medicine. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on a cohort of genomic, epigenomic and proteomic profiling data sets measured in human breast cancer cell lines. Through a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) project, we analyzed a total of 44 drug sensitivity prediction algorithms. The top-performing approaches modeled nonlinear relationships and incorporated biological pathway information. We found that gene expression microarrays consistently provided the best predictive power of the individual profiling data sets; however, performance was increased by including multiple, independent data sets. We discuss the innovations underlying the top-performing methodology, Bayesian multitask MKL, and we provide detailed descriptions of all methods. This study establishes benchmarks for drug sensitivity prediction and identifies approaches that can be leveraged for the development of new methods.
MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update of current practices. - Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and liver transplantation is the optimal treatment for selected patients with HCC and chronic liver disease (CLD). Accurate selection of patients for transplantation is essential to maximize patient outcomes and ensure optimized allocation of donor organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of HCC. In patients with CLD, the MRI findings of an arterial-enhancing mass with subsequent washout and enhancing capsule on delayed interstitial phase images are diagnostic for HCC. Major organizations with oversight for organ donor distribution, such as The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), accept an imaging diagnosis of HCC, no longer requiring tissue biopsy. In patients that are awaiting transplantation, or are not candidates for liver transplantation, localized therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation may be offered. MRI can be used to monitor treatment response. The purpose of this review article is to describe the role of imaging methods in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of HCC, with particular emphasis on established and evolving MRI techniques employing nonspecific gadolinium chelates, hepatobiliary contrast agents, and diffusion weighted imaging. We also briefly review the recently developed Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) formulating a standardized terminology and reporting structure for evaluation of lesions detected in patients with CLD.
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