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Assessment of biochemical and antioxidative status in patients suffering from dengue fever. - Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
A multi-centred study was designed to collect dengue epidemiologic data from government and registered private hospitals/clinics and maintained archive of frozen specimens in bio-bank to be used for future dengue epidemic control program, and assess the epidemiology of dengue fever (DF) by evaluating biochemical and oxidative status of patients. ELISA IgM antibodies test was done to confirm DF. From August 2010 to December 2011, 101 confirmed blood samples of DF patients referred to pathology lab of Jinnah Hospital Lahore were subjected to the epidemiologic assessment by evaluating the biochemical and physiological indices and alterations of circulating antioxidants. Clinical features of DF patients and effect of fever on blood components and serum proteins of liver were recorded. The hospital stay in DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) showed significant difference. Significant increases in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) (P=0.000), aspartate amino transferase (AST) (P=0.000), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P=0.000), malondialdehyde (MDA) along with significant decreases in total protein (TP) (P=0.000), reduced glutathione (GSH) (P=0.000), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) (P=0.000), and sialic acid contents (P=0.016) were observed. A positive correlation existed between bound sialic acid levels, liver enzymes and circulating antioxidants (r=0.656, P=0.016). In the present study, alterations of circulating antioxidants in DF suggest that DF might be a metabolic response to an acute, self-limiting tropical viral infection, and a consequence of the viral inflammatory process.
In vitro bactericidal activity of cefepime and cefpirome against clinical isolates at Karachi. - Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
Antibiotics not only support to alleviate the infections but also facilitate to avert the multiplication of microbes. Due to the irrational use of antibiotics, the resistance of antibiotics has been augmented which results may increase in morbidity and mortality with the span of time. World renowned regulatory bodies like Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) vigorously advocate the surveillance of the resistance of antibiotics. During the present study by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method 141 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=47, 33.34%), Escherichia coli (n=54, 38.3%), Proteus species (n=26, 18.4%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14, 9.92%) are evaluated against cefepime and cefpirome which comes of fourth generation cephalosporin. It has been found that cefpirome has better bactericidal activity than cefepime against E. coli and K. pneumoniae while cefepime has been possessed better antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Proteus species which were isolated from respiratory tract infections, blood stream infection, intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Proteus species, and S. aureus were 34.8%, 26.3%, 11.3%, and 37.7% resistance against cefepime respectively. S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Proteus species has shown 41.4%, 21.7%, 17.6%, and 8.9% resistance against cefpirome correspondingly.
An automated phenotype-based microscopy screen to identify pro-longevity interventions acting through mitochondria in C. elegans. - Biochimica et biophysica acta
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that play a central role in cellular homeostasis. Severe mitochondrial dysfunction leads to life-threatening diseases in humans and accelerates the aging process. Surprisingly, moderate reduction of mitochondrial function in different species has anti-aging effects. High-throughput screenings in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lead to the identification of several pro-longevity genetic and pharmacological interventions. Large-scale screens, however, are manual, subjective, time consuming and costly. These limitations could be reduced by the identification of automatically quantifiable biomarkers of healthy aging. In this study we exploit the distinct and reproducible phenotypes described in C. elegans upon different levels of mitochondrial alteration to develop an automated high-content strategy to identify new potential pro-longevity interventions. Utilizing the microscopy platform Cellomics ArrayScan Reader, we optimize a workflow to automatically and reliably quantify the discrete phenotypic readouts associated with different degrees of silencing of mitochondrial respiratory chain regulatory proteins, and validate the approach with mitochondrial-targeting drugs known to extend lifespan in C. elegans. Finally, we report that a new mitochondrial ATPase modulator matches our screening phenotypic criteria and extends nematode's lifespan thus providing the proof of principle that our strategy could be exploited to identify novel mitochondrial-targeted drugs with pro-longevity activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation - update and evidence. - Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (T-AVI) has become the standard of care for high-risk patients suffering from severe aortic valve stenosis. More than 60,000 implants have been performed to date. While the first-generation T-AVI devices had some specific issues, the advancements in these first-generation devices and the development of second-generation devices significantly reduced the incidence of peri-procedural complications. The two major access routes are the transfemoral (TF) and the transapical (TA) approach. Both approaches have their advantages and should be considered equal alternatives for finding the best treatment option for the individual patient. Currently there are discussions about extending the indication to patients with lower risk profiles. However, there is no real evidence to justify an expansion, as results of surgical aortic valve replacement in low and intermediate risk patients are excellent.
Comparison of two valve systems for transapical aortic valve implantation: a propensity score-matched analysisâ€ - European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Several alternative transapical (TA) aortic prostheses for aortic valve implantation (AVI) have recently become available. Data directly comparing the performance of these different TA-AVI valves, however, are sparse. Therefore, we sought to analyse the performance of the better-established balloon-expandable SAPIEN XTâ„¢ valve system, and compare it with the recently approved self-expandable ACURATE TAâ„¢ system by means of propensity score (PS) analysis.Samples from a total of 310 consecutive patients treated with transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included (2010-2014). The ACURATE valve was implanted in 40% (n = 131), SAPIEN in 60% (n = 179). To adjust for baseline differences, 1:1 PS matching was used, and resulted in 103 matched pairs. In addition to demographical and clinical variables, potential anatomical confounders (calcification grade: computed tomography (CT) Agatston score; annulus diameter: CT-effective diameter) were included within the PS estimation.For ACURATE- versus SAPIEN-treated patients, the mean age was 83.1 Â± 5.4 vs 79.8 Â± 9.5 (P < 0.001). Mean Society of Thoracic Surgeon scores were 7.7 Â± 4.6 vs 8.1 Â± 6.0 (P = 0.56). PS matching resulted in bias reduction <0.2, indicating excellent balance and allowing for valid outcome comparison. Device success, 30-day mortality rate and 1-year survival were comparable. Pacemaker and 30-day neurological event rates were not significantly different. The need for post-ballooning was significantly higher in the self-expandable group (40% vs 9%; P < 0.001). Echocardiography upon discharge demonstrated excellent functional outcomes regarding residual paravalvular leaks (ACURATE: 3% vs SAPIEN: 4%, P = 1.0) with slightly higher mean gradients in the ACURATE group (12 Â± 5 mmHg vs 10 Â± 5 mmHg, P = 0.003).The two transapical TAVI devices demonstrated comparable haemodynamic performance and clinical outcome. The self-expandable valve required more frequent post-ballooning without affecting the safety profile.Â© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
First experience without pre-ballooning in transapical aortic valve implantation: a propensity score-matched analysis. - European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Transapical aortic valve implantation (TA-AVI) using the Edwards SAPIENâ„¢ prosthesis has evolved into a routine procedure for selected high-risk elderly patients. The recently introduced SAPIENâ„¢ delivery system (Ascendra II+â„¢) with an added nose cone seems to facilitate direct valve implantation without prior balloon valvuloplasty (BAV). Here, we report our initial experience with this device.A total of 128 patients were enrolled in the study in 2012 and 2013 and were designated Cohort I. For a subset of 79 patients, exact cardio- computed tomography-based measurements were available; these patients were assigned to Cohort II. All patients received SAPIEN XTâ„¢ valves using the TA approach. TA-AVI without pre-ballooning was performed in 31.2% (Cohort I) and 31.6% (Cohort II) of patients. To adjust for baseline variables, propensity score (PS)-based pair matching was used.All valves were implanted successfully. The use of PS matching resulted in bias reduction for both cohorts. For Cohort I, there were no significant differences in the primary end points, which were aortic valve incompetenceâ‰¥2+, Pmean postimplantation, major stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), requirement for post-dilatation and necessity for new pacemaker implantation. As expected, fluoroscopy time was significantly lower in no-BAV patients. In Cohort II, the 30-day TIA rate was lower in the no-BAV group.Direct TA implantation of the SAPIEN valve without pre-ballooning is feasible, safe, does not seem to compromise functional outcomes and may be associated with fewer neurological events.Â© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Effect of acetate and carbonate buffers on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution: a kinetic study. - AAPS PharmSciTech
The photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of acetate buffer (pH 3.8-5.6) and carbonate buffer (pH 9.2-10.8) has been studied using a multicomponent spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous assay of RF and its photoproducts. Acetate and carbonate buffers have been found to catalyze the photolysis reaction of RF. The apparent first-order rate constants for the acetate-catalyzed reaction range from 0.20 to 2.86 Ã— 10(-4) s(-1) and for the carbonate-catalyzed reaction from 3.33 to 15.89 Ã— 10(-4) s(-1). The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with the acetate and the carbonate ions range from 2.04 to 4.33 Ã— 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) and from 3.71 to 11.80 Ã— 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The k-pH profile for the acetate-catalyzed reaction is bell shaped and for the carbonate-catalyzed reaction a steep curve. Both HCO3(-) and CO3(2-) ions are involved in the catalysis of the photolysis reaction in alkaline solution. The rate constants for the HCO3(-) and CO3(2-) ions catalyzed reactions are 0.72 and 1.38 Ã— 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, indicating a major role of CO3(2-) ions in the catalysis reaction. The loss of RF fluorescence in acetate buffer suggests an interaction between RF and acetate ions to promote the photolysis reaction. The optimum stability of RF solutions is observed in the pH range 5-6, which is suitable for pharmaceutical preparations.
Resistance pattern of clinical isolates involved in surgical site infections. - Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
Wound infections due to the incursion of microbes need to be averted or to heal the wounds by antibiotics. Antibiotics are not only aid in cure of infections but also help to prevent the flourishing and production of one or more species of microorganism, resultant in purulent discharge. This current study was carried out to evaluate the resistance pattern of clinical isolates from surgical site infections by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A total of 257 clinical isolates were collected from different hospitals in Karachi and evaluated by using fifteen antibiotics belonging to different groups. Staphylococcus aureus (n=87), Escherichia coli (n=76), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=56), Proteus (n=21) and Klebsiella (n=17) species are the most common clinical isolates of surgical site infections. Among the semi-synthetic penicillins, ampicillin was found to be resistant to nearly all clinical isolates but amoxicillin was moderately sensitive to S. aureus. Combinations of semi-synthetic penicillins are more sensitive than the penicillin alone. Co-amoxiclave exhibits superior sensitivity to all the surgical infection isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which showed 68.75% resistance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant to cephalosporin except ceftraixone which showed 21.88% resistance. S. aureus was slightly responsive to cefazolin, cephradine, cefaclor, ceftizoxime, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone. E. coli, Gram-negative clinical isolate was showed 25% and 31.25% resistance to ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. In the Klebsiella species, 71.42% and 64.29% resistance to cefazolin and cefuroxime respectively, was observed. Aminoglycosides such as gentamycin and tobramycin were found to be more susceptible to all the clinical isolates. Quinolones like ofloxacin and enoxacin were showed good sensitivity to nearly all the clinical isolates.On the basis of the present study, it is recommended to adopt a rational use of antibiotics in prophylaxis and the utilization of a coordinated scheme of surgical wound inspections.
The reverse remodeling effect of mesenchymal stem cells is independent from the site of epimyocardial cell transplantation. - Innovations (Philadelphia, Pa.)
The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising approach for treating the ischemic and the nonischemic diseased heart. The positive effects of transplanting these cells could be shown, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated whether the injection site affects the improvement in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and angiogenesis in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced failing hearts.Heart failure was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by doxorubicin treatment, followed by right ventricular MSC transplantation (RV-MSC, n = 6), LV MSC transplantation (LV-MSC, n = 6), sham treatment (sham group, n = 6), or no therapy (Dox group, n = 5). Healthy rabbits were used as control group (n = 8). Cells were isolated after bone marrow aspiration and transplanted locally into the ventricular myocardium. After 4 weeks, cardiac function and capillary density (CD31 staining) were measured.The transplantation of MSCs increased the EF significantly (LV-MSC, 39.0% Â± 1.4%, and RV-MSC, 39.2% Â± 2.6%, vs sham group, 29.8% Â± 3.7%; P < 0.001), without significance between the MSC groups (P = 0.858). Neither the evidence of a transdifferentiation nor any signs of cell engraftment of transplanted cells could be found. The capillary density (capillaries/high-power field) increased in both MSC groups compared with the sham group (LV-MSC by 8.3% Â± 3.4%; and RV-MSC, 8.1% Â± 2.2%; P < 0.05), without significance between the two MSC groups (P = 0.927).Injection of autologous MSCs in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathic rabbit hearts improves EF and enhances angiogenesis. Despite local application, we observed global effects on heart function and capillary density without significant difference between right and LV injection. The paracrine mechanism might be one possible explanation for these findings.
TAVI: transapical--what else? - EuroIntervention : journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a relatively new technique to treat elderly and high-risk patients with aortic stenosis using a retrograde transfemoral, transsubclavian, transaortic or an antegrade transapical approach. TAVI procedures can be divided into two parts: the access to the cardiovascular system, and valve positioning and implantation. Regarding access, an antegrade transapical approach is intuitively easy to perform and thus the logical approach. At present a lateral mini-thoracotomy is required, but for the future percutaneous access and closure systems will be available. The transapical approach per se offers plenty of advantages as it is easy to perform, is very close to the target, antegrade, allows for easy guidewire insertion together with simple antegrade valve placement and a very controlled implantation. Despite this, in clinical reality many sites use a "transfemoral first" approach to TAVI, which is based merely on the belief that this is supposed to be less invasive; however, this belief is not substantiated by evidence-based data. In effect, the transapical approach offers the lowest access-related complication rates, and should therefore be the access of choice for many patients.
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