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Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar. - Stem cells international
Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.
Discovery of the First Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human dCTP Pyrophosphatase 1. - Journal of medicinal chemistry
The dCTPase pyrophosphatase 1 (dCTPase) regulates the intracellular nucleotide pool through hydrolytic degradation of canonical and noncanonical nucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). dCTPase is highly expressed in multiple carcinomas and is associated with cancer cell stemness. Here we report on the development of the first potent and selective dCTPase inhibitors that enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytidine analogues in leukemia cells. Boronate 30 displays a promising in vitro ADME profile, including plasma and mouse microsomal half-lives, aqueous solubility, cell permeability and CYP inhibition, deeming it a suitable compound for in vivo studies.
Click synthesis of a polyamidoamine dendrimer-based camptothecin prodrug. - RSC advances
In the present work we report on the click synthesis of a new camptothecin (CPT) prodrug based on anionic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer intended for cancer therapy. We applied 'click' chemistry to improve polymer-drug coupling reaction efficiency. Specifically, CPT was functionalized with a spacer, 1-azido-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxaoctadecan-18-oic acid (APO), via EDC/DMAP coupling reaction. In parallel, propargylamine (PPA) and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) amine were conjugated to PAMAM dendrimer G4.5 in sequence using an effective coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-(1,3,5)triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium chloride (DMTMM). CPT-APO was then coupled to PEGylated PAMAM dendrimer G4.5-PPA via a click reaction using copper bromide/2,2'-bipyridine/ dimethyl sulfoxide (catalyst/ligand/solvent). Human glioma cells were exposed to the CPT-conjugate to determine toxicity and cell cycle effects using WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The CPT-conjugate displayed a dose-dependent toxicity with an IC50 of 5 Î¼M, a 185-fold increase relative to free CPT, presumably as a result of slow release. As expected, conjugated CPT resulted in G2/M arrest and cell death while the dendrimer itself had little to no toxicity. Altogether, highly efficient click chemistry allows for the synthesis of multifunctional dendrimers for sustained drug delivery.
A simple method to assess in vivo proliferation in lung vasculature with EdU: the case of MMC-induced PVOD in rat. - Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation is becoming the gold standard method for in vitro and in vivo visualization of proliferating cells. The small size of the fluorescent azides used for detection results in a high degree of specimen penetration. It can be used to easily detect DNA replication in large tissue samples or organ explants with low proliferation and turnover of cells formerly believed to be in a "terminal" state of differentiation. Here we describe a protocol for the localization and identification of proliferating cells in quiescent or injured pulmonary vasculature, in a model of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). PVOD is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins. We previously reported that mitomycin-C (MMC) therapy is associated with PVOD in human. We demonstrated that MMC can induce PVOD in rats, which currently represents the sole animal model that recapitulates human PVOD lesions. Using the EdU assay, we demonstrated that MMC-exposed lungs displayed areas of exuberant microvascular endothelial cell proliferation which mimics pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, one of the pathologic hallmarks of human PVOD. In vivo pulmonary cell proliferation measurement represents an interesting methodology to investigate the potential efficacy of therapies aimed at normalizing pathologic angioproliferation.
Mutation of the BRCA1 SQ-cluster results in aberrant mitosis, reduced homologous recombination, and a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining. - Oncotarget
Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations.
Crystal structure, biochemical and cellular activities demonstrate separate functions of MTH1 and MTH2. - Nature communications
Deregulated redox metabolism in cancer leads to oxidative damage to cellular components including deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). Targeting dNTP pool sanitizing enzymes, such as MTH1, is a highly promising anticancer strategy. The MTH2 protein, known as NUDT15, is described as the second human homologue of bacterial MutT with 8-oxo-dGTPase activity. We present the first NUDT15 crystal structure and demonstrate that NUDT15 prefers other nucleotide substrates over 8-oxo-dGTP. Key structural features are identified that explain different substrate preferences for NUDT15 and MTH1. We find that depletion of NUDT15 has no effect on incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP into DNA and does not impact cancer cell survival in cell lines tested. NUDT17 and NUDT18 were also profiled and found to have far less activity than MTH1 against oxidized nucleotides. We show that NUDT15 is not a biologically relevant 8-oxo-dGTPase, and that MTH1 is the most prominent sanitizer of the cellular dNTP pool known to date.
Trends in gastric cancer incidence: a period and birth cohort analysis in a well-defined French population. - Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association
The incidence of gastric cancer has declined over the past decades. Little is known about trends by site and histological subtype. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in gastric cancer incidence patterns in a French well-defined population.Data on patients with an epithelial gastric cancer diagnosed between 1982 and 2011 were collected by the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (nÂ =Â 4694). Time trends in gastric cancer incidence by period of diagnosis and birth cohort were analyzed by sex, subsite, and histological type.There was a decrease in incidence rates for antral carcinomas (-2.6Â % per year in males, -2.5Â % per year in females; pÂ <Â 0.001) and corpus carcinomas (-3.3Â % and -3.2Â %, respectively; p < 0.001). Annual percentage changes were not significant for fundus carcinomas in both sexes and cardia carcinoma in females, although they increased in males (+1.0Â % per year; pÂ <Â 0.02).When comparing the 1900 cohort and the 1950 cohort, there was a five- to sevenfold decrease in the cumulative risk at 0-79Â years for corpus and antral carcinomas in both sexes and a threefold decrease for fundus carcinomas. There were minor variations for cardia carcinomas. There was a decrease of incidence both by period of diagnosis and by birth cohort for adenocarcinoma and colloid carcinoma. It was more marked for undifferentiated carcinoma. The variation for signet-ring carcinoma was minor.Temporal variations in incidence rates of gastric cancer differed according to subsite and histology, suggesting different etiological factors. Available analytical studies provide an explanation for the reported trends by subsite.
BRCA1 functions as a novel transcriptional cofactor in HIV-1 infection. - Virology journal
Viruses have naturally evolved elegant strategies to manipulate the host's cellular machinery, including ways to hijack cellular DNA repair proteins to aid in their own replication. Retroviruses induce DNA damage through integration of their genome into host DNA. DNA damage signaling proteins including ATR, ATM and BRCA1 contribute to multiple steps in the HIV-1 life cycle, including integration and Vpr-induced G2/M arrest. However, there have been no studies to date regarding the role of BRCA1 in HIV-1 transcription.Here we performed various transcriptional analyses to assess the role of BRCA1 in HIV-1 transcription by overexpression, selective depletion, and treatment with small molecule inhibitors. We examined association of Tat and BRCA1 through in vitro binding assays, as well as BRCA1-LTR association by chromatin immunoprecipitation.BRCA1 was found to be important for viral transcription as cells that lack BRCA1 displayed severely reduced HIV-1 Tat-dependent transcription, and gain or loss-of-function studies resulted in enhanced or decreased transcription. Moreover, Tat was detected in complex with BRCA1 aa504-802. Small molecule inhibition of BRCA1 phosphorylation effector kinases, ATR and ATM, decreased Tat-dependent transcription, whereas a Chk2 inhibitor showed no effect. Furthermore, BRCA1 was found at the viral promoter and treatment with curcumin and ATM inhibitors decreased BRCA1 LTR occupancy. Importantly, these findings were validated in a highly relevant model of HIV infection and are indicative of BRCA1 phosphorylation affecting Tat-dependent transcription.BRCA1 presence at the HIV-1 promoter highlights a novel function of the multifaceted protein in HIV-1 infection. The BRCA1 pathway or enzymes that phosphorylate BRCA1 could potentially be used as complementary host-based treatment for combined antiretroviral therapy, as there are multiple potent ATM inhibitors in development as chemotherapeutics.
Overview of the glucansucrase equipment of Leuconostoc citreum LBAE-E16 and LBAE-C11, two strains isolated from sourdough. - FEMS microbiology letters
The whole set of putative glucansucrases from Leuconostoc citreum LBAE-E16 and LBAE-C11 was retrieved from the draft genome sequence of these two sourdough strains previously suggested as alternan producers. Four and five putative glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) encoding genes were identified in the genome sequence of strain C11 and E16, respectively. Some putative genes have high sequence identity to known Leuconostoc dextransucrases. Molecular and biochemical data confirmed that L. citreum C11 could be considered as a new alternan-producing strain, unlike strain E16. In the latter, two new putative glucansucrases with unusual structural features were retrieved. In particular, the GSE16-5 gene encodes for a protein of 2063 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of 229 kDa that shares 61% identity with the alternansucrase (ASR) of L. citreum NRRL B-1355, due to the presence of seven APY repeats identified in the C-terminal peptide sequence. Cloning and expression of the corresponding coding sequence revealed synthesis of a low molecular weight (10(4) Da) linear dextran polymer with glucosyl residues only linked by Î±-1,6 linkages. This novel GH70 enzyme may thus be viewed as a natural chimeric enzyme resulting from the addition of the ASR C-terminal region in a dextransucrase.Â© FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Peptide library approach to uncover phosphomimetic inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-terminal domain. - ACS chemical biology
Many intracellular protein-protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation.
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