2625 Mcnutt Rd
Sunland Park NM 88063
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License #: 2002-0292
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Improving index-based drought insurance in varying topography: evaluating basis risk based on perceptions of Nicaraguan hillside farmers. - PloS one
This paper discusses a methodology to model precipitation indices and premium prices for index-based drought insurance for smallholders. Spatial basis risk, which is borne by the insured, is a problem, especially in variable topography. Also, site-specific drought risk needs to be estimated accurately in order to offer effective insurance cover and ensure financial sustainability of the insurance scheme. We explore farmers' perceptions on drought and spatial climate variability and draw conclusions concerning basis risk with regards to the proposed methodology. There are technically many options to represent natural heterogeneity in index insurance contracts while serving the customer adequately and keeping transaction costs low.
[Candida peritonitis: Prevalence and risk factors]. - Revista iberoamericana de micologiÌa
A peritoneal fluid with a positive culture for Candida in patients with associated clinical symptoms enables peritoneal candidiasis (PC) to be diagnosed. This etiology is related to a poor prognosis, thus, it is important to know all the risk factors and to start early an empirical treatment. The risk factors associated with this kind of peritonitis are to receive prolonged antibiotic treatment, nosocomial infection, female gender, involvement of the upper gastro-intestinal (UGI) tract, and the ocurrence of an intraoperative cardiovascular failure (CVF).The principal aim was to determine the prevalence of PC in our hospital, and the secondary aims to determine the associated risk factors.We obtained samples from 74 patients diagnosed with peritonitis, consecutively from 2007 to 2010. Cultures were performed with the free peritoneal fluid aspirated during surgery.The prevalence of PC obtained in our hospital was 17.6%, from which 46.15% corresponded to Candida albicans. The involvement of the UGI tract and the onset of CVF can be considered risk factors for the development of this pathology. Age, gender, nosocomial infection and previous antibiotic treatment were not related to this pathology.Our prevalence of PC is 17.6%. The risk factors that could predispose are the involvement of the UGI tract as the cause of peritonitis, and CVF during surgical procedure.Copyright Â© 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de MicologÃa. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans using bridged polysilsesquioxane films doped with porphyrin. - Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
Novel photoactive bridged polysilsesquioxane films were prepared by doped with a porphyrin derivative. The films were formed by acid-catalyzed polycondensation reaction of a precursor of a bridged silsesquioxane, based on the reaction product of (glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane with n-dodecylamine in the presence of 5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-methylphenyl)porphyrin, followed by solvent evaporation. This procedure allowed obtaining flexible thin films. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis showed the characteristic bands of the porphyrin in the visible region indicating that the photosensitizer is mainly embedded as monomer in the films. Photodynamic properties of the polymeric films were studied in solution containing photooxidizable substrates. Singlet molecular oxygen, O(2)((1)Î”(g)), production was observed by the reaction with 9,10-dimethylanthracene and 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid in different media. Also, these films photosensitized the decomposition of l-tryptophan. In vitro investigations showed that these films produce photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans cells in aqueous suspensions and on their surfaces. These films exhibit a photosensitizing activity causing a âˆ¼2.5 log (99.7%) decrease of cellular survival after 60 min of irradiation with visible light. Also, the photocytotoxicity of the surfaces was tested under condition of microbial growth. Yeast cells exposed to the film and illuminated showed growth delay compared with controls. Studies of photodynamic action mechanism showed that the photoinactivation increased in D(2)O, while cells were protected in the presence of azide ion. In contrast, the addition of mannitol produced a negligible effect on the cellular phototoxicity. These results provide evidence that O(2)((1)Î”(g)) produced by the polymeric film doped with porphyrin can successfully inactivate C. albicans in cell suspensions and deposited on the film surface.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2625 Mcnutt Rd Sunland Park, NM 88063
3465 Mcnutt Rd