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A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Social Norm Interventions to Increase Physical Activity. - Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Physical activity confers numerous health benefits, yet few adults meet recommended physical activity guidelines.The impact of brief messages providing descriptive and injunctive social norm feedback on physical activity was tested in this conceptual pilot study.Young adults (NÂ =Â 111) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: descriptive norm feedback, descriptive-plus-injunctive norm feedback, or no social feedback (control condition). Participants used pedometers for eight weekdays and recorded their step counts each evening. The descriptive norm group received feedback about the average number of steps taken by group members the previous day. The descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group received feedback about the group average, as well as a sad face if the participant was below the average or a happy face if the participant was above the average. The control group received no feedback throughout the study.By days 7 and 8, the descriptive-plus-injunctive norm group reported significantly more steps relative to the control group, whereas the descriptive norm group showed a trend toward higher step counts relative to the control group. These effects did not differ for participants above versus below the group average at baseline.The combined use of descriptive and injunctive social norms increased physical activity over a short period. This simple feedback strategy has potential for achieving wide reach and dissemination on its own or combined with more comprehensive interventions. This initial evidence can guide larger trials of longer duration.The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT02710201).
U.S. Associated Pacific Islands Health Care Teams Chart a Course for Improved Health Systems: Implementation and Evaluation of a Non-communicable Disease Collaborative Model. - Journal of health care for the poor and underserved
The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing in the U.S. Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI). We describe the implementation and evaluation of a NCD Collaborative pilot, using local trainers, as an evidence-based strategy to systematically strengthen NCD health care quality and outcomes, focusing on diabetes preventive care across five health systems in the region.
Erectile Dysfunction Drugs Changed the Protein Expressions and Activities of Drug-Metabolising Enzymes in the Liver of Male Rats. - Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major health problem and is mainly associated with the persistent inability of men to maintain sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. Millions of men are using sildenafil, vardenafil, and/or tadalafil for ED treatment. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics as well as endogenous compounds. Susceptibility of individuals to the adverse effects of different drugs is mainly dependent on the expression of CYPs proteins. Therefore, changes in activities of phase I drug-metabolising enzymes [arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase (DMN-dI), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase ((EROD)] and the protein expression of different CYPs isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2B1/2, CYP3A4, CYP2C23, and CYP2C6) were determined after treatment of male rats with either low or high doses of sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and/or vardenafil (Levitra) for 3 weeks. The present study showed that low doses of tadalafil and vardenafil increased DMN-dI activity by 32 and 23%, respectively. On the other hand, high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil decreased such activity by 50, 56, and 52%, respectively. In addition, low doses of tadalafil and vardenafil induced the protein expression of CYP2E1. On the other hand, high doses of either tadalafil or sildenafil were more potent inhibitors to CYP2E1 expression than vardenafil. Moreover, low doses of both vardenafil and sildenafil markedly increased AHH activity by 162 and 247%, respectively, whereas high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil inhibited such activity by 36, 49, and 57% and inhibited the EROD activity by 39, 49, and 33%, respectively. Low and high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil inhibited the activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase as well as its protein expression. In addition, such drugs inhibited the expression of CYP B1/2 along with its corresponding enzyme marker ECOD activity. It is concluded that changes in the expression and activity of phase I drug-metabolising enzymes could change the normal metabolic pathways and might enhance the deleterious effects of exogenous as well as endogenous compounds.
Fibrinogen supplementation ex vivo increasesclot firmness comparable to platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenia. - British journal of anaesthesia
Fibrinogen concentrate can improve clot firmness and offers a better safety profile than platelet concentrates. Reduction or avoidance of blood transfusions represents a strategy to reduce associated risks. We investigated whether supplementation of fibrinogen concentrate ex vivo can compensate for clot strength as compared with platelet transfusion in vivo METHODS: One hundred patients in need of platelet transfusion (PT) were enrolled. Blood samples were collected immediately before PT and at 1â€‰h and 24â€‰h after PT. Fibrinogen concentrate was added to these citrated whole blood samples at concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400â€‰mg kg(-1) and the maximum clot firmness (MCF) was analysed using ROTEM thromboelastometry.Fibrinogen supplementation increased MCF significantly and dose-dependently before and after PT. The effect of fibrinogen concentrate (equivalent to doses of 100 and 200â€‰mg kg(-1)) ex vivo was comparable to that of PT in vivo, whereas 400â€‰mg kg(-1) fibrinogen significantly improved MCF compared with PT (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001).Fibrinogen concentrate can match the effect of PT on MCF in thrombocytopenia. This potential alternative haemostatic intervention should be evaluated in clinical trials.Â© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prescription reporting with immediate medication utilization mapping (PRIMUM): development of an alert to improve narcotic prescribing. - BMC medical informatics and decision making
Prescription narcotic overdoses and abuse have reached alarming numbers. To address this epidemic, integrated clinical decision support within the electronic medical record (EMR) to impact prescribing behavior was developed and tested.A multidisciplinary Expert Panel identified risk factors for misuse, abuse, or diversion of opioids or benzodiazepines through literature reviews and consensus building for inclusion in a rule within the EMR. We ran the rule "silently" to test the rule and collect baseline data.Five criteria were programmed to trigger the alert; based on data collected during a "silent" phase, thresholds for triggers were modified. The alert would have fired in 21.75Â % of prescribing encounters (1.30Â % of all encounters; nâ€‰=â€‰9998), suggesting the alert will have a low prescriber burden yet capture a significant number of at-risk patients.While the use of the EMR to provide clinical decision support is not new, utilizing it to develop and test an intervention is novel. We successfully built an alert system to address narcotic prescribing by providing critical, objective information at the point of care. The silent phase data were useful to appropriately tune the alert and obtain support for widespread implementation. Future healthcare initiatives can utilize similar methodology to collect data prospectively via the electronic medical record to inform the development, delivery, and evaluation of interventions.
Oxidative status of the myocardium in response to different intensities of physical training. - Physiological research
The intensity of exercise determines the metabolic pathway and the energetic substrate that is spent. Our study sought to identify the effects of different intensities of swimming on myocardial oxidative status and the blood lipid profile. Eighty Wistar rats (male and female) submitted to different intensities of a swimming regimen (low, LS; moderate, MS; or high, HS) for 16 weeks. Samples of blood and myocardium from the left ventricle were collected to determine lipid profiles and oxidative status. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation was analyzed. ROS levels and ACAP were higher in male rats than in female rats overall (p<0.05). However, ACAP in the myocardium was significantly elevated in LS female rats compared to the MS and HS female rats, which had a significantly lower ACAP compared to all other groups. LS and MS training in both sexes and HS training (in females) led to significant decreases in the heart's lipid peroxidation. Amelioration of the lipid profile and reduction in oxidative damage contributed to a physiological state that benefits cardiovascular function in exercised animals. The results show that low and moderate intensity exercise promotes beneficial adaptations.
Jasmonic acid is a downstream component in the modulation of somatic embryogenesis by Arabidopsis Class 2 phytoglobin. - Journal of experimental botany
Previous studies have shown that the beneficial effect of suppression of the Arabidopsis phytoglobin 2 gene, PGB2, on somatic embryogenesis occurs through the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) within the embryogenic cells originating from the cultured explant. NO activates the expression of Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and Lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2), genes encoding two key enzymes of the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway, elevating JA content within the embryogenic tissue. The number of embryos in the single aos1-1 mutant and pgb2-aos1-1 double mutant declined, and was not rescued by increasing levels of NO stimulating embryogenesis in wild-type tissue. NO also influenced JA responses by up-regulating PLANT DEFENSIN 1 (PDF1) and JASMONATE-ZIM-PROTEIN (JAZ1), as well as down-regulating MYC2. The NO and JA modulation of MYC2 and JAZ1 controlled embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of JAZ1 or suppression of MYC2 promoted the formation of somatic embryos, while repression of JAZ1 and up-regulation of MYC2 reduced the embryogenic performance. Sustained expression of JAZ1 induced the transcription of several indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthetic genes, resulting in higher IAA levels in the embryogenic cells. Collectively these data fit a model integrating JA in the PGB2 regulation of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Suppression of PGB2 increases JA through NO. Elevated levels of JA repress MYC2 and induce JAZ1, favoring the accumulation of IAA in the explants and the subsequent production of somatic embryos.Â© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
[Manpower requirements for medical doctors in psychiatric departments of community hospitals--bottom-up calculation for the psychiatric department of Donauspital in Vienna]. - Neuropsychiatrie : Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation : Organ der Gesellschaft Osterreichischer Nervenarzte und Psychiater
Clinical psychiatry changed dramatically in the past 30 years. Clinical challenges are very different from those in old mental hospitals. Psychotherapy and sociotherapy are effective but very time-consuming parts of treatments of nearly every psychiatric disorder. Planning of staff resources based on the German "Psychiatrie Personalverordnung" does not match with modern quality requirements. As a result, the standards of evidence-based treatment cannot be offered to severely mentally ill inpatients.We carried out a buttom-up calculation of medical staffing for the concrete patients considering diagnosis, and length of stay of the psychiatric department of the Danube hospital in Vienna 2013 and 2014. This is an 80 bed unit responsible for an area of 250,000 inhabitants, providing about 1100 admissions each year.The calculated yearly sum of working hours for medical doctors in the particular department was 39,527. When considering a net working-time of 80%, the actual number of medical staff should be at least doubled to allow psychiatric treatment according to current guidelines.Severely ill psychiatric patients seem to be undertreated because of low staffing of psychiatric departments.
Urine is a novel source of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for patients with epidermolysis bullosa. - BMC research notes
Regenerative medicine is strictly dependent on stem cells as a source for a high diversity of somatic cells. However, the isolation of such from individuals suffering from severe genetic skin blistering diseases like epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is often associated with further organ damage.Stem cells were isolated from 112 urine samples from 21 different healthy donors, as well as from 33 urine samples from 25 donors with EB. The cultivation of these cells was optimized by testing different media formulations and pre-coating of culture vessels with collagen. The identity of cells was confirmed by testing marker expression, differentiation potential and immune-modulatory properties.We provide here an optimized protocol for the reproducible isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from urine, even from small volumes as obtained from patients with EB. Furthermore, we offer a basic characterization of those urine-derived stem cells (USCs) from healthy donors, as well as from patients with EB, and demonstrate their potential to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts and adipocytes, as well as their immune-modulatory properties.Thus, USCs provide a novel and non-invasive source of stem cells, which might be applied for gene-therapeutic approaches to improve medical conditions of patients with EB.
A Cultivated Form of a Red Seaweed (Chondrus crispus), Suppresses Î²-Amyloid-Induced Paralysis in Caenorhabditis elegans. - Marine drugs
We report here the protective effects of a methanol extract from a cultivated strain of the red seaweed, Chondrus crispus, against Î²-amyloid-induced toxicity, in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, expressing human AÎ²1-42 gene. The methanol extract of C. crispus (CCE), delayed Î²-amyloid-induced paralysis, whereas the water extract (CCW) was not effective. The CCE treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of amy1; however, Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease of AÎ² species, as compared to untreated worms. The transcript abundance of stress response genes; sod3, hsp16.2 and skn1 increased in CCE-treated worms. Bioassay guided fractionation of the CCE yielded a fraction enriched in monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) that significantly delayed the onset of Î²-amyloid-induced paralysis. Taken together, these results suggested that the cultivated strain of C. crispus, whilst providing dietary nutritional value, may also have significant protective effects against Î²-amyloid-induced toxicity in C. elegans, partly through reduced Î²-amyloid species, up-regulation of stress induced genes and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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