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Diagnosis-specific prognostic factors, indexes, and treatment outcomes for patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases: a multi-institutional analysis of 4,259 patients. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Controversy endures regarding the optimal treatment of patients with brain metastases (BMs). Debate persists, despite many randomized trials, perhaps because BM patients are a heterogeneous population. The purpose of the present study was to identify significant diagnosis-specific prognostic factors and indexes (Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment [DS-GPA]).A retrospective database of 5,067 patients treated for BMs between 1985 and 2007 was generated from 11 institutions. After exclusion of the patients with recurrent BMs or incomplete data, 4,259 patients with newly diagnosed BMs remained eligible for analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the prognostic factors and outcomes by primary site and treatment were performed. The significant prognostic factors were determined and used to define the DS-GPA prognostic indexes. The DS-GPA scores were calculated and correlated with the outcomes, stratified by diagnosis and treatment.The significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer, the significant prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance status, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of BMs, confirming the original GPA for these diagnoses. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, the significant prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance status and the number of BMs. For breast and gastrointestinal cancer, the only significant prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance status. Two new DS-GPA indexes were thus designed for breast/gastrointestinal cancer and melanoma/renal cell carcinoma. The median survival by GPA score, diagnosis, and treatment were determined.The prognostic factors for BM patients varied by diagnosis. The original GPA was confirmed for non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. New DS-GPA indexes were determined for other histologic types and correlated with the outcome, and statistical separation between the groups was confirmed. These data should be considered in the design of future randomized trials and in clinical decision-making.(c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radiographic and histopathologic observations after combined EGFR inhibition and hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
To describe the radiographic and histopathologic changes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.A total of 15 patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas were treated on a prospective Phase I trial combining SRS and gefitinib. The SRS dose was escalated from 18 to 36 Gy in three fractions. The planning target volume was the T(1)-weighted contrast-enhancing (T(1)C) lesion plus 2 mm. Gefitinib was given at 250 mg daily. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed to characterize the volumetric changes in the T(1)C and T(2) abnormalities after treatment. Two patients underwent resection for suspected recurrence.The median pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging T(1)C and T(2) volume was 40.9 and 184.1 cm(3), respectively. The median post-SRS percentage of increases in the T(1)C volume at 1, 2-4, and 5-7 months was 8.9%, 41.3%, and 99.6%, respectively. The median percentage increase in the T(2) volume likewise showed a trend upward after SRS, from 18.0% at 1 month to 37.8% at 5-7 months. For the 2 patients who underwent resection after SRS for an increasing T(1)C volume, the histopathologic analysis revealed therapy-induced vascular injury and necrosis. One patient with an asymptomatic increase in the T(1)C volume after SRS was treated conservatively. After a peak T(1)C volume increase at 9 months, the T(1)C volume had declined to 50% of the maximal volume at 15 months. The patients with the most dramatic increase in T(1)C volume experienced the longest overall survival.Patients experienced a notable increase in magnetic resonance imaging T(1)C and T(2) volumes after the combination of SRS and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. The tissue changes were consistent with a potent treatment effect.
Impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy in T3N0 invasive carcinoma of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis. - Cancer
Randomized trials provide evidence for improved outcomes with postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in high-risk patients. It has been suggested that patients with T3N0 breast cancer represent a favorable subgroup for which PMRT renders little benefit. In the current study, the authors used a United States population database to evaluate PMRT in this subgroup.The cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) of women with T3N0M0 breast cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database after mastectomy and axillary staging from 1988 to 2002 were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to relate CSS with PMRT (yes vs no), tumor size (< or =7 cm vs >7 cm), grade (1 vs 2 or 3), patient age (< or =50 years vs >50 years), the number of lymph nodes dissected (< or =13 vs >13), and the era treated (1988-1997 vs 1998-2002). Multivariate analyses for CSS and OS were also performed.In total, 1865 women met the analysis criteria for OS; CSS data were available for 98.8% of those women. Of the women who were diagnosed during the era from 1988 to 1997, 22% received PMRT, and that rate increased to 41% during the era from 1998 to 2002. The actuarial 10-year CSS for those who received PMRT versus those who did not receive PMRT was 81.6% versus 79.8%, respectively (P = .38). PMRT was not associated with a CSS benefit in any subgroup, a finding that persisted in multivariate analyses. Women who received PMRT had an increased 10-year OS rate (70.7% vs 58.4%; P < .001) that was confined to women aged >50 years in a subgroup analysis.This retrospective, population-based analysis demonstrated no increase in CSS with PMRT for women with T3N0 breast cancer, lending further support to the hypothesis that T3N0 disease postmastectomy represents a favorable subset of locally advanced breast cancer. The increased OS associated with PMRT in the absence of improved CSS likely reflects patient selection in this nonrandomized dataset. Prospective evaluation of PMRT in this population subset is warranted.2008 American Cancer Society
Survival effect of neoadjuvant radiotherapy before esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end-results study. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
The role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) before definitive surgery for esophageal cancer remains controversial. This study used a large population-based database to assess the effect of NeoRT on survival for patients treated with definitive surgery.The overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival for patients with Stage T2-T4, any N, M0 (cT2-T4M0) esophageal cancer who had undergone definitive surgery between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed by querying the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and univariate comparisons were made using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards survival regression multivariate analysis was performed with NeoRT, T stage (T2 vs. T3-T4), pathologic nodal status (pN0 vs. pN1), number of nodes dissected (>10 vs. =10), histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), age (<65 vs. >/=65 years), and gender as covariates.A total of 1,033 patients were identified. Of these, 441 patients received NeoRT and 592 underwent esophagectomy alone; 77% were men, 67% had adenocarcinoma, and 72% had Stage T3-T4 disease. The median OS and cause-specific survival were both significantly greater for patients who received NeoRT compared with esophagectomy alone (27 vs. 18 months and 35 vs. 21 months, respectively, p <0.0001). The 3-year OS rate was also significantly greater in the NeoRT group (43% vs. 30%). On multivariate analysis, NeoRT, age <65 years, adenocarcinoma histologic type, female gender, pN0 status, >10 nodes dissected, and Stage T2 disease were all independently correlated with increased OS.These results support the use of NeoRT for patients with esophageal cancer. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
Outcomes and effect of radiotherapy in patients with stage I or II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded.A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age =60 years).This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.
A phase I dose-escalation study of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in combination with gefitinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. - International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with gefitinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.A Phase I clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients had pathologically proved recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma. Patients started gefitinib (250 mg/day) 7 days before SRS and continued for 1 year or until disease progression. SRS was delivered in three fractions over 3 days. The planning target volume (PTV) was the T1-weighted MRI postcontrast enhancing lesion+2 mm. The first cohort received an SRS dose of 18 Gy, and subsequent cohorts received higher doses up to the maximum dose of 36 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was any Grade 3 toxicity. The MTD was exceeded if 2 of 6 patients in a cohort experienced DLT.Characteristics of the 15 patients enrolled were: 9 men, 6 women; median age, 47 years (range, 23-65 years); 11 glioblastoma, 4 AA; median prior RT dose, 60 Gy (range, 54-61.2 Gy); median interval since RT, 12 months (range, 3-57 months); median PTV, 41 cc (range, 12-151 cc). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range, 2-28 months). Median time on gefitinib was 5 months (range, 2-12 months). No patient experienced a DLT, and the SRS dose was escalated from 18 to 36 Gy. Grade 1-2 gefitinib-related dermatitis and diarrhea were common (10 and 7 patients, respectively).Fractionated SRS to a dose of 36 Gy in three fractions is well tolerated with gefitinib at daily dose of 250 mg. Further studies of SRS and novel molecular targeted agents are warranted in this challenging clinical setting.
Update in the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer. - Clinical lung cancer
Brain metastases from lung cancer represent a prevalent and challenging clinical dilemma. The brain is an extremely common site of failure for non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer, often as a solitary site of disease. Despite steady research developments during recent years, survival rates remain poor. Some research suggests that the outcomes and characteristics of brain metastases that result from lung cancer primary sites are perhaps different than those from other primary sites. Clinical treatment strategies should therefore be adjusted accordingly. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment strategies of brain metastases from lung cancer with a particular emphasis on recent research developments in the field.
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