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RecG Directs DNA Synthesis during Double-Strand Break Repair. - PLoS genetics
Homologous recombination provides a mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) that requires an intact, homologous template for DNA synthesis. When DNA synthesis associated with DSBR is convergent, the broken DNA strands are replaced and repair is accurate. However, if divergent DNA synthesis is established, over-replication of flanking DNA may occur with deleterious consequences. The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a helicase and translocase that can re-model 3-way and 4-way DNA structures such as replication forks and Holliday junctions. However, the primary role of RecG in live cells has remained elusive. Here we show that, in the absence of RecG, attempted DSBR is accompanied by divergent DNA replication at the site of an induced chromosomal DNA double-strand break. Furthermore, DNA double-stand ends are generated in a recG mutant at sites known to block replication forks. These double-strand ends, also trigger DSBR and the divergent DNA replication characteristic of this mutant, which can explain over-replication of the terminus region of the chromosome. The loss of DNA associated with unwinding joint molecules previously observed in the absence of RuvAB and RecG, is suppressed by a helicase deficient PriA mutation (priA300), arguing that the action of RecG ensures that PriA is bound correctly on D-loops to direct DNA replication rather than to unwind joint molecules. This has led us to put forward a revised model of homologous recombination in which the re-modelling of branched intermediates by RecG plays a fundamental role in directing DNA synthesis and thus maintaining genomic stability.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Listening to Recorded Music for Heart Failure Patients: Study Protocol. - Holistic nursing practice
To describe a conceptual framework and to test the effectiveness of a recorded music-listening protocol on symptom burden and quality of life in heart failure (HF) patients.Heart failure is an important public health problem. Many HF patients experience symptoms burden and poor quality of life, even with current improvements in pharmacological treatments. Recorded music listening has been shown to improve outcomes in cardiovascular patients, but it has never been tested on HF patients and with a specific music protocol and a randomized controlled trial methodology.This study is a multicenter blinded randomized controlled trial that will involve 150 patients. Eligible patients will have a diagnosis of HF, in New York Heart Association functional classification of I to III, and will be recruited from 3 large hospitals in Northern Italy. Patients will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive recorded music-listening intervention with or without standard care for 3 months. Data will be collected at baseline and at the end of the first, second, and third month during the intervention, and at 6 months for follow-up. The following variables will be collected from HF patients with validated protocols: quality of life (primary endpoint), use of emergency services, rehospitalization rates, all cause mortality, self-care, somatic symptoms, quality of sleep, anxiety and depression symptoms, and cognitive function.This study will examine the effect of recorded music listening on HF patients and will inform clinical practice. If the findings are found to be positive, the protocol could be used as a tool for evidence-based applications of recorded music in HF patients. The framework developed in this study may be helpful for future research focused on the effects of music in HF patients.
Feasibility of using Arabic Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression among patients attending Accident and Emergency at a University Hospital setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. - Pakistan journal of medical sciences
To evaluate the feasibility of using Arabic Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess depression and anxiety among patients attending accident and emergency (A & E) at a University Hospital setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this prospective observational study translated questionnaire of HADS was used for patients aged 18 years or above who presented to A & E at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study included 257 patients as per an agreed inclusion criteria. The study quantified depression and anxiety and its association with demographic and or illness related variables using SPSS.Out of 257 participants, the dominant age group, ranged between 18-30 years (40.9%) with female participants (55.3%) outweigh the male among all. The overall occurrence of depression was 27.2% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 21.8 % to 32.6%) and anxiety was 23% (17.8% to 28.2%CI). Marital, educational and economic status of participants, were statistically significantly associated (p<0.05) with the levels of anxiety whereas age, marital, education, economic and employment status were associated (p<0.05) with the levels of depression.In the A & E setting at University Hospital in Saudi Arabia, comorbid depression and anxiety is not uncommon as enumerated by using HADS. The identified cases could then be sent for appropriate psychiatric treatment promptly not only to improve quality of individual care but also to reduce the overall health care costs in local context.
Hierarchical TiO2/C nanocomposite monoliths with a robust scaffolding architecture, mesopore-macropore network and TiO2-C heterostructure for high-performance lithium ion batteries. - Nanoscale
Engineering hierarchical structures of electrode materials is a powerful strategy for optimizing the electrochemical performance of an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we report the fabrication of hierarchical TiO2/C nanocomposite monoliths by mediated mineralization and carbonization using bacterial cellulose (BC) as a scaffolding template as well as a carbon source. TiO2/C has a robust scaffolding architecture, a mesopore-macropore network and TiO2-C heterostructure. TiO2/C-500, obtained by calcination at 500 Â°C in nitrogen, contains an anatase TiO2-C heterostructure with a specific surface area of 66.5 m(2) g(-1). When evaluated as an anode material at 0.5 C, TiO2/C-500 exhibits a high and reversible lithium storage capacity of 188 mA h g(-1), an excellent initial capacity of 283 mA h g(-1), a long cycle life with a 94% coulombic efficiency preserved after 200 cycles, and a very low charge transfer resistance. The superior electrochemical performance of TiO2/C-500 is attributed to the synergistic effect of high electrical conductivity, anatase TiO2-C heterostructure, mesopore-macropore network and robust scaffolding architecture. The current material strategy affords a general approach for the design of complex inorganic nanocomposites with structural stability, and tunable and interconnected hierarchical porosity that may lead to the next generation of electrochemical supercapacitors with high energy efficiency and superior power density.
Terminalia Chebula Attenuates DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Swiss albino Mouse Skin. - Toxicology international
The present study was designed to investigate underlying molecular mechanism for antitumorigenic potential of Terminalia chebula (TC) against chemically-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. It is used as herbal medicine because it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activity. However, the prÃ©cised underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.In light of the important role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ÎºB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, chemopreventive efficacy of TC against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA), and croton oil-induced 2-stage skin carcinogenesis was studied in terms of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), inflammatory responses, and expression of various molecular markers in skin tissues.We found that topical application of TC at dose of 30 mg/kg b. wt. mouse effectively suppressed oxidative stress and deregulated activation of inflammatory mediators and tumorigenesis. Histological findings further supported the protective effects of TC against DMBA/croton oil-induced cutaneous damage.The findings of the present study suggest that the chemopreventive effect of TC is associated with upregulation of endogenous cytoprotective machinery and downregulation of inflammatory mediators (interleukin (IL)-6, COX-2, i-NOS, ODC, and NF-ÎºB).
Can MLVA Differentiate among Endemic-Like MRSA Isolates with Identical Spa-Type in a Low-Prevalence Region? - PloS one
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway is low, but an endemic-like MRSA clone with Staphylococcal protein A (spa)-type t304 has been established especially in nursing homes in the Oslo region causing several large outbreaks. The challenge was that spa-typing and the gold standard Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were inadequate in discriminating isolates in outbreak investigations. Additional higher resolution genotyping methods were needed. The aims of this study were a) to evaluate whether Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) could differentiate within the PFGE clusters between epidemiologically related and unrelated endemic-like ST8-MRSA-IV-t304-PVL-neg (MRSA-t304) isolates and b) investigate the evolution of the endemic-like MRSA-t304 clone over a 15-year time period. All MRSA-t304 isolates detected in the region from 1998 through April 2013 were included. In total, 194 of 197 isolates were available for PFGE and MLVA analyses. PFGE results on isolates from 1998-2010 have been published previously. Two PFGE clusters subdivided into eight MLVA types were detected. One major outbreak clone (PFGE cluster C2/ MLVA type MT5045) appeared from 2004 to 2011 causing long-lasting and large outbreaks in seven nursing homes and one hospital. Five new MLVA types (N = 9 isolates) differing in only one VNTR compared to the outbreak clone C2/MT5045 were detected, but only one (C2/MT5044) was seen after 2011. We suggest that MLVA can replace PFGE analysis, but MLVA may not be the optimal method in this setting as it did not discriminate between all epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The results may indicate that all eight outbreaks in different locations within the PFGE C2 cluster may be branches of one large regional outbreak. The major outbreak strain C2/MT5045 may now, however, be under control, extinguished or has moved geographically.
Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage? - Saudi journal of biological sciences
Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24Â h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72Â h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (pÂ >Â 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (pÂ >Â 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (pÂ <Â 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced.
The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 hajj season. - Journal of travel medicine
Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained.A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of <2 weeks duration. Approximately 61.8% were administered antibiotics but only 2.1% of them had been hospitalized. Most of them acquired the infection after a brief stay at Arafat (81.2%). Vaccination coverages for influenza virus and pneumococcal disease were quite high, 65.2% and 59.4%, respectively. For other preventive measures practices, only 31.8% of them practiced good hand hygiene, âˆ¼82.9% of pilgrims used surgical face masks, N95 face masks, dry towels, wet towels or veils as their face masks. Nearly one-half of the respondents (44.4%) took vitamins as their food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk.The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively.Â© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Combined implant-residual tooth supported prosthesis after tooth hemisection: A finite element analysis. - Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Tooth hemisection preserves partial tooth structure and reduces the resorption of alveolar bone. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of preserving a molar after hemisection and inserting a dental implant with different prosthetic superstructures by means of finite element analysis. First, the distance between the root of the mandibular second premolar and the distal root of the first molar were measured in 80 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data sets. Based on these data, the lower right posterior jaw segment was reconstructed and the geometries of the appropriate implant were imported. Four models were created: (1) Hemi-1: An implant (3.7Ã—9mm) replaced the mesial root of the molar, and a single crown was placed on the implant and residual tooth. (2) Hemi-2: Two separate crowns were generated for the implant and the residual tooth. (3) Single: An implant (5.5Ã—9mm) with crown replaced the whole molar. (4) FPD: A 3-unit fixed partial denture combined the distal residual part of the molar and premolar. The results indicated that stresses in the cortical bone and strains in the majority region of the spongious bone were below the physiological upper limits. There were higher stresses in implant with the Hemi-1 and Single models, which had the same maximum values of 45.0MPa. The FPD models represented the higher values of stresses in the teeth and strains in PDL compared to other models. From a biomechanical point of view, it can be concluded that a combination of an implant and residual molar after tooth hemisection is an acceptable treatment option.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Genome Sequence of Mycobacteriophage Cabrinians. - Genome announcements
Mycobacteriophage Cabrinians is a newly isolated phage capable of infecting both Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis and was recovered from a soil sample in New York City, NY. Cabrinians has a genome length of 56,669Â bp, encodes 101 predicted proteins, and is a member of mycobacteriophages in cluster F.Copyright Â© 2016 Chudoff et al.
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