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Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. - Nature
Although water vapour is the main species observed in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and water is the major constituent of cometary nuclei, limited evidence for exposed water-ice regions on the surface of the nucleus has been found so far. The absence of large regions of exposed water ice seems a common finding on the surfaces of many of the comets observed so far. The nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears to be fairly uniformly coated with dark, dehydrated, refractory and organic-rich material. Here we report the identification at infrared wavelengths of water ice on two debris falls in the Imhotep region of the nucleus. The ice has been exposed on the walls of elevated structures and at the base of the walls. A quantitative derivation of the abundance of ice in these regions indicates the presence of millimetre-sized pure water-ice grains, considerably larger than in all previous observations. Although micrometre-sized water-ice grains are the usual result of vapour recondensation in ice-free layers, the occurrence of millimetre-sized grains of pure ice as observed in the Imhotep debris falls is best explained by grain growth by vapour diffusion in ice-rich layers, or by sintering. As a consequence of these processes, the nucleus can develop an extended and complex coating in which the outer dehydrated crust is superimposed on layers enriched in water ice. The stratigraphy observed on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is therefore the result of evolutionary processes affecting the uppermost metres of the nucleus and does not necessarily require a global layering to have occurred at the time of the comet's formation.
Concurrent Validity of activPAL and ActivPAL3 Accelerometers in Older Adults. - Journal of aging and physical activity
The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity between activPAL and activPAL3 accelerometers in a sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults â‰¥65 years. Physical activity (PA) was measured simultaneously with activPAL and activPAL3 while performing scripted activities. Level of agreement between both devices was calculated for sitting/lying, standing and walking. Additionally, PA was measured over one week using the activPAL to estimate the expected agreement with activPAL3 in real-life. Overall agreement between activPAL and activPAL3 was 97%. Compared to activPAL the largest disagreement was seen for standing with 5% categorised as walking by activPAL3. For walking and sitting/lying the disagreement was both 2%. The expected daily differences between activPAL3 compared to activPAL was +15.0 min (95%-CI: 11.3-18.8) for walking and +29.5 min (95%-CI: 6.2-52.7) for standing. ActivPAL and activPAL3 showed good agreement in older adults. However, if using these devices interchangeable observed differences might still bias results.
Oxidized Phospholipids Inhibit the Formation of Cholesterol-Dependent Plasma Membrane Nanoplatforms. - Biophysical journal
We previously developed a single-molecule microscopy method termed TOCCSL (thinning out clusters while conserving stoichiometry of labeling), which allows for direct imaging of stable nanoscopic platforms with raft-like properties diffusing in the plasma membrane. As a consensus raft marker, we chose monomeric GFP linked via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor to the cell membrane (mGFP-GPI). With this probe, we previously observed cholesterol-dependent homo-association to nanoplatforms diffusing in the plasma membrane of live CHO cells. Here, we report the release of this homo-association upon addition of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, two oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) that are typically present in oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein. We found a dose-response relationship for mGFP-GPI nanoplatform disintegration upon addition of POVPC, correlating with the signal of the apoptosis marker Annexin V-Cy3. Similar concentrations of lysolipid showed no effect, indicating that the observed phenomena were not linked to properties of the lipid bilayer itself. Inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase by NB-19 before addition of POVPC completely abolished nanoplatform disintegration by oxPLs. In conclusion, we were able to determine how oxidized lipid species disrupt mGFP-GPI nanoplatforms in the plasma membrane. Our results favor an indirect mechanism involving acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than a direct interaction of oxPLs with nanoplatform constituents.Copyright Â© 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Extrapyramidal effects of acute organophosphate poisoning. - Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
There is limited information on extrapyramidal symptoms in acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning. We describe the course and outcome of severely poisoned patients who develop extrapyramidal manifestations.In this prospective observational study, spanning 8 months (Apr-Nov 2013) adult patients (>18Â years) admitted with OP poisoning were enrolled. Patients on anti-psychotic therapy, those refusing consent or presenting with co-ingestions were excluded. Treatment included atropine and supportive care (e.g. ventilation and inotropes as indicated); oximes were not administered. The presence of rigidity, tremors, dystonia and chorea were assessed daily till discharge using modifications of the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale and the Tremor rating scale. The presence of extrapyramidal manifestations was correlated with length of ventilation and hospital stay and mortality.Of the 77 patients admitted with OP poisoning, 32 were enrolled; 17 (53.1%) developed extrapyramidal manifestations which included rigidity (94.1%), tremors (58.8%) and dystonia (58.8%). None developed chorea. The median (inter-quartile range) time of symptom onset was 8 (5-11) days; extrapyramidal features resolved in 11 (6-17) days. The median duration of intensive care stay in patients not developing extrapyramidal symptoms was 6 (2-8) days, indicating that most of these patients had recovered even before symptom onset in patients who developed extrapyramidal manifestations. Overall, 27/32 (84%) were ventilated. Hospital mortality was 6.25% (2/32). When compared with patients not developing extrapyramidal signs, those with extrapyramidal manifestations had significantly prolonged ventilation (5 versus 16 median days; pâ€‰=â€‰0.001) and hospitalization (8 versus 21Â days; pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), reduced ventilator-free days (23 versus 12Â days; pâ€‰=â€‰0.023) and increased infections (pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). The need for ventilation and mortality were not significantly different (pâ€‰>â€‰0.6). Extrapyramidal symptoms were not observed in non-OP poisoned patients with prolonged ICU stay.In this small series of acute OP poisoning, extrapyramidal manifestations were common after 1Â week of intensive care but self-limiting. They are significantly associated with longer duration of ventilation and hospital stay.
Glucose-Raising Polymorphisms in the Human Clock Gene Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) Affect Hepatic Lipid Content. - PloS one
Circadian rhythms govern vital functions. Their disruption provokes metabolic imbalance favouring obesity and type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the role of clock genes in human prediabetes. To this end, genotype-phenotype associations of 121 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging ARNTL, ARNTL2, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, and TIMELESS were assessed in a study population of 1,715 non-diabetic individuals metabolically phenotyped by 5-point oral glucose tolerance tests. In subgroups, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy were performed. None of the tested SNPs was associated with body fat content, insulin sensitivity, or insulin secretion. Four CRY2 SNPs were associated with fasting glycaemia, as reported earlier. Importantly, carriers of these SNPs' minor alleles revealed elevated fasting glycaemia and, concomitantly, reduced liver fat content. In human liver tissue samples, CRY2 mRNA expression was directly associated with hepatic triglyceride content. Our data may point to CRY2 as a novel switch in hepatic fuel metabolism promoting triglyceride storage and, concomitantly, limiting glucose production. The anti-steatotic effects of the glucose-raising CRY2 alleles may explain why these alleles do not increase type-2 diabetes risk.
Hepatitis C virus: how to provide the best treatment with what I have. - Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
The therapeutic landscape for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been rapidly evolving, and by 2016 there will be six approved, all-oral regimens for use in patients in the USA and most of Western Europe. However, as many as patient populations will have limited access to new direct acting antiviral regimens, patients and physicians are often faced with the challenge of selecting the best regimen available, as opposed to the optimal treatment. In this paper, the challenges and opportunities in developing a high cure regimen for different patient populations will be discussed and highlighted through case-based scenarios.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Delivering a sustainable trauma management training programme tailored for low-resource settings in East, Central and Southern African countries using a cascading course model. - Injury
Injuries cause five million deaths and 279 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS) each year worldwide. The COSECSA Oxford Orthopaedic Link (COOL) is a multi-country partnership programme that has delivered training in trauma management to nine sub-Saharan countries across a wide-cadre of health-workers using a model of "primary" courses delivered by UK instructors, followed by "cascading" courses led by local faculty. This study examines the impact on knowledge and clinical confidence among health-workers, and compares the performance of "cascading" and "primary" courses delivered in low-resource settings.Data was collated from 1030 candidates (119 Clinical Officers, 540 Doctors, 260 Nurses and 111 Medical Students) trained over 28 courses (9 "primary" and 19 "cascading" courses) in nine sub-Saharan countries between 2012 and 2013. Knowledge and clinical confidence of candidates were assessed using pre- and post-course MCQs and confidence matrix rating of clinical scenarios. Changes were measured in relation to co-variants of gender, job roles and primary versus cascading courses. Multivariate regression modelling and cost analysis was performed to examine the impact of primary versus cascading courses on candidates' performance.There was a significant improvement in knowledge (58% to 77%, p<0.05) and clinical confidence (68% to 90%, p<0.05) post-course. "Non-doctors" demonstrated a greater improvement in knowledge (22%) and confidence (24%) following the course (p<0.05). The degree of improvement of MCQ scores differed significantly, with the cascading courses (21%) outperforming primary courses (15%) (p<0.002). This is further supported by multivariate regression modelling where cascading courses are a strong predictor for improvement in MCQ scores (Coef=4.83, p<0.05).Trauma management training of health-workers plays a pivotal role in tackling the ever-growing trauma burden in Africa. Our study suggests cascading PTC courses may be an effective model in delivering trauma training in low-resource settings, however further studies are required to determine its efficacy in improving clinical competence and retention of knowledge and skills in the long term.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Relative resolution: A hybrid formalism for fluid mixtures. - The Journal of chemical physics
We show here that molecular resolution is inherently hybrid in terms of relative separation. While nearest neighbors are characterized by a fine-grained (geometrically detailed) model, other neighbors are characterized by a coarse-grained (isotropically simplified) model. We notably present an analytical expression for relating the two models via energy conservation. This hybrid framework is correspondingly capable of retrieving the structural and thermal behavior of various multi-component and multi-phase fluids across state space.
Swinging Symmetry, Multiple Structural Phase Transitions, and Versatile Physical Properties in RECuGa3 (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd). - Inorganic chemistry
The compounds RECuGa3 (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd) were synthesized by various techniques. Preliminary X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses at room temperature suggested that the compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system with either the centrosymmetric space group I4/mmm (BaAl4 type) or the non-centrosymmetric space group I4mm (BaNiSn3 type). Detailed single-crystal XRD, neutron diffraction, and synchrotron XRD studies of selected compounds confirmed the non-centrosymmetric BaNiSn3 structure type at room temperature with space group I4mm. Temperature-dependent single-crystal XRD, powder XRD, and synchrotron beamline measurements showed a structural transition between centro- and non-centrosymmetry followed by a phase transition to the Rb5Hg19 type (space group I4/m) above 400 K and another transition to the Cu3Au structure type (space group Pm3Ì…m) above 700 K. Combined single-crystal and synchrotron powder XRD studies of PrCuGa3 at high temperatures revealed structural transitions at higher temperatures, highlighting the closeness of the BaNiSn3 structure to other structure types not known to the RECuGa3 family. The crystal structure of RECuGa3 is composed of eight capped hexagonal prism cages [RE4Cu4Ga12] occupying one rare-earth atom in each ring, which are shared through the edge of Cu and Ga atoms along the ab plane, resulting in a three-dimensional network. Resistivity and magnetization measurements demonstrated that all of these compounds undergo magnetic ordering at temperatures between 1.8 and 80 K, apart from the Pr and La compounds: the former remains paramagnetic down to 0.3 K, while superconductivity was observed in the La compound at T = 1 K. It is not clear whether this is intrinsic or due to filamentary Ga present in the sample. The divalent nature of Eu in EuCuGa3 was confirmed by magnetization measurements and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and is further supported by the crystal structure analysis.
A paradoxical role for an acute phase reactant in decompensated cirrhosis. - Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
This study aims to determine the predictive power of baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) value in cirrhotic patients with ascites, without overt infection, that might lead to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)/ cellullitis.152 consecutive cirrhotic patients with ascites, without overt infection were included in the study, after measuring the baseline CRP value. All patients were followed up for a duration of one year, or till development of SBP/cellulitis.Baseline CRP was elevated in 76.8% of the patients. Development of infection was observed in 78 (51.3%) patients. SBP was diagnosed in 54 patients, cellulitis was documented in 15 patients. 9 patients had simultaneous SBP and cellulitis Baseline CRP was 10.2 Â± 6.34 mg/dL in the group who developed infection, it was 4.81 Â± 4.41 mg/dL in the group who did not develop infection (p = 0.002). Baseline CRP > 9.5 mg/dL, serum albumin < 2.8 g/dL and a previous history of infection were independent predictors of developing SBP/cellulitis.Along with low serum albumin and previous history of infection, CRP can be used as a predictive tool for early detection of infection, thus enabling to reduce the morbidity and mortality.
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1650 Sycamore Ave Suite 18 Bohemia, NY 11716
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