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An analysis of select emerging executive skills in perinatally HIV-1-infected children. - Applied neuropsychology. Child
This study examined the effect of perinatal HIV-1 infection on emerging executive skills in children (nÂ =Â 161) ages 8 to 12 years. HIV-positive (nÂ =Â 76) and HIV-negative (nÂ =Â 85) children were eligible to participate. The HIV-positive children included those who had experienced a CDC Class C event (greater severity, nÂ =Â 22) and those who were HIV-positive but who had not experienced a CDC Class C event (less severity, nÂ =Â 54). Measures of emerging executive functions completed by the children included subtests from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), the Trail-Making Test-Part B, and a subtest from the Woodcock-Johnson Battery-Revised. Ratings of executive functions were obtained from caretakers using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Generalized estimating equations methods, discriminate analyses, and global deficit score analyses were performed to determine whether differences emerged between the three clinical groups while using strict controls. The present results revealed significant group differences in unadjusted mean scores measuring executive functioning. However, such differences did not remain statistically significant when moderating variables were taken into consideration in the models. The apparent deficit in executive functioning for the HIV-positive children was found to be largely due to differential psychosocial and environmental factors rather than HIV disease and its severity, and in this cohort, the effects of HIV-1 infection on emerging executive functions appeared to be negligible when controlling for treatment and moderating psychosocial variables.
Characteristics of HIV infected adolescents in Latin America: results from the NISDI pediatric study. - Journal of tropical pediatrics
HIV-infected adolescents are a heterogeneous population; source of infection, immunodeficiency severity and antiretroviral (ARV) experience vary. Here, we describe youth followed in an observational study at Latin American sites of the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI).The NISDI pediatric protocol is an ongoing prospective cohort study that collects demographic, clinical, immunologic, virologic and medication data. Youth were enrolled at 15 sites in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico between 2002 and 2006. HIV-infected subjects aged 12-21 years at the time of enrollment were analyzed.Data from 120 HIV-infected youth were analyzed. Sixty-nine (58%) had acquired HIV through vertical transmission (VT); 51(42%) via horizontal transmission (HT). Twenty-eight percent of the VT group were not diagnosed until they were â‰¥10 years of age. Ninety-one percent of the VT group and 46% of the HT were receiving ARV at enrollment. Modes of HT included sexual (ST), blood product transfusion (BPT) and unknown (U). Severe immunodeficiency was frequent (21%) in the ST group. Low BMI was frequent in the VT and BPT sub-groups. Utilization of HAART increased over the course of the study, but viral suppression was present in only 38% of the VT group and 37% of the HT group at study end.This cohort of HIV-infected adolescents in Latin America displayed a diverse epidemiologic pattern. Care providers must be prepared to address the diverse needs and challenges of this population. The levels of virologic suppression achieved were inadequate. Further research into appropriate interventions for this population is urgently needed.
Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households. - AIDS care
This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6-17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV and 256 HIV- children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong-Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV and uninfected children exposed to HIV individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated.
Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, t - MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control
This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIV-infected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIV-infected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women. Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development. Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions; 4) new guidance on diagnosing of HIV infection and presumptively excluding HIV infection in infants that affect the need for initiation of prophylaxis to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in neonates; 5) updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines; 6) addition of sections on aspergillosis; bartonella; human herpes virus-6, -7, and -8; malaria; and progressive multifocal leukodystrophy (PML); and 7) new recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children. The report includes six tables pertinent to preventing and treating OIs in children and two figures describing immunization recommendations for children aged 0--6 years and 7--18 years. Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov.
Short-cycle therapy in adolescents after continuous therapy with established viral suppression: the impact on viral load suppression. - AIDS research and human retroviruses
This was a proof-of-principle study to evaluate the impact of short cycle therapy (SCT; 4 days on/3 days off) in adolescents and young adults with good viral suppression on a protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimen. Subjects were recruited by the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions and the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Subjects were infected either through perinatal/early childhood transmission or later via risk behaviors. All subjects were required to have at least 6 months of documented viral suppression below 400 copies/ml plus a preentry value below 200 copies/ml and an entry CD4+ T cell count above 350 cells/mm3. Of the 32 subjects enrolled, 12 (37.5%) had confirmed viral load rebound >400 copies, with 18 subjects (56%) coming off for any reason. The majority of subjects resuppressed when placed back onto continuous therapy using the same agents. Although no difference was found in virologic rebound rates between the early and later transmission groups, those infected early in life had higher rates of coming off SCT for any reason. There was no impact of SCT on the CD4+ T cell counts in those who remained on study or those who came off SCT for any reason. Subjects demonstrated good adherence to the SCT regimen. This study suggests that further evaluation of SCT may be warranted in some groups of adolescents and young adults infected with HIV.
Early initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir in infants less than 6 weeks of age: pharmacokinetics and 24-week safety and efficacy. - The Pediatric infectious disease journal
With increasing recognition of the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy initiation in perinatally HIV-infected infants, data are needed regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of recommended first-line protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).A prospective, phase I/II, open-label, dose-finding trial evaluated LPV/r at a dose of 300/75 mg/m twice daily plus 2 nucleoside analogs in HIV-1-infected infants > or =14 days to <6 weeks of age. Intensive 12-hour PK evaluations were performed after 2 weeks of LPV/r therapy, and doses were modified to maintain LPV predose concentrations >1 microg/mL and area under the curve (AUC) <170 microg hr/mL.Ten infants enrolled [median age 5.7 (range, 3.6-5.9) weeks] with median HIV-1 RNA of 6.0 (range, 4.7-7.2) log10 copies/mL; all completed 24 weeks of follow-up. Nine completed the intensive PK evaluation at a median LPV dose of 267 (range, 246-305) mg/m q12 hours; median measures were AUC = 36.6 (range, 27.9-62.6) microg hr/mL; predose concentration = 2.2 (range, 0.99-4.9) microg/mL; maximum concentration = 4.76 (range, 2.84-7.28) microg/mL and apparent clearance (L/h/m) = 6.75 (range, 2.79-12.83). Adverse events were limited to transient grade 3 neutropenia in 3 subjects. By week 24, 2 of 10 subjects had experienced a protocol-defined virologic failure.Although the LPV AUC in this population was significantly lower than that observed in infants ages 6 weeks to 6 months, LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy in doses of 300/75 mg/m BID was well tolerated and resulted in virologic control in 8 of 10 infants by 24 weeks. Additional investigation is needed to understand the long-term implications of the lower LPV exposure in this age group.
Pharmacokinetics of high-dose lopinavir-ritonavir with and without saquinavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric and adolescent patients previously treated with protease inhibitors. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents who are failing antiretrovirals may have a better virologic response when drug exposures are increased, using higher protease inhibitor doses or ritonavir boosting. We studied the pharmacokinetics and safety of high-dose lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) in treatment-experienced patients, using an LPV/r dose of 400/100 mg/m(2) orally every 12 h (p.o. q12h) (without nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI]), or 480/120 mg/m(2) p.o. q12h (with NNRTI). We calculated the LPV inhibitory quotient (IQ), and when the IQ was <15, saquinavir (SQV) 750 mg/m(2) p.o. q12h was added to the regimen. We studied 26 HIV-infected patients. The median age was 15 years (range, 7 to 17), with 11.5 prior antiretroviral medications, 197 CD4 cells/ml, viral load of 75,577 copies/ml, and a 133-fold change in LPV resistance. By treatment week 2, 14 patients had a viral-load decrease of >0.75 log(10), with a median maximal decrease in viral load of -1.57 log(10) copies/ml at week 8. At week 2, 19 subjects showed a median LPV area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 157.2 (range, 62.8 to 305.5) microg x h/ml and median LPV trough concentration (C(trough)) of 10.8 (range, 4.1 to 25.3) microg/ml. In 16 subjects with SQV added, the SQV median AUC was 33.7 (range, 4.4 to 76.5) microg x h/ml and the median SQV C(trough) was 2.1 (range, 0.2 to 4.1) microg/ml. At week 24, 18 of 26 (69%) subjects remained in the study. Between weeks 24 and 48, one subject withdrew for nonadherence and nine withdrew for persistently high virus load. In antiretroviral-experienced children and adolescents with HIV, high doses of LPV/r with or without SQV offer safe options for salvage therapy, but the modest virologic response and the challenge of adherence to a regimen with a high pill burden may limit the usefulness of this approach.
Increased incidence of asthma in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in the National Institutes of Health Women and Infants Transmission Study. - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Immunoreconstitution of HIV(+) patients after treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appears to provoke inflammatory diseases.We sought to determine whether HIV(+) children receiving HAART (HIV(+) HAART(+)) have a higher incidence of asthma than HIV(+) children not receiving HAART (HIV(+) HAART(-)).Two thousand six hundred sixty-four children (193 HIV(+) and 2471 HIV(-) children) born to HIV(+) women were evaluated for the incidence and prevalence of asthma (ie, asthma medication use) and change of CD4(+) T-cell percentage with time.The HIV(+) HAART(+) children had higher CD4(+) T-cell percentages, lower CD8(+) T-cell percentages, and lower viral burdens than the HIV(+) HAART(-) children (P < or = .05 to P < or = .01). The cumulative incidence of asthma medication use in HIV(+) HAART(+) children at 13.5 years increased to 33.5% versus 11.5% in HIV(+) HAART(-) children (hazard ratio, 3.34; P = .01) and was equal to that in the HIV(-) children. In children born before the HAART era, the prevalence of asthma medication use for HIV(+) HAART(+) children at 11 years of age was 10.4% versus 3.8% for HIV(+) HAART(-) children (odds ratio, 3.38; P = .02) and was equal to that of the HIV(-) children. The rate of change of CD4(+) T cells around the time of first asthma medication for HIV(+) HAART(+) versus HIV(+) HAART(-) children was 0.81%/y versus -1.43%/y (P = .01).The increased incidence of asthma in HIV(+) HAART(+) children might be driven by immunoreconstitution of CD4(+) T cells.
Pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir in infants less than 6 months of age: 24 week results. - AIDS (London, England)
To investigate pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based therapy in HIV-1-infected infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age.A prospective, multicenter, open-label trial of 21 infants with HIV-1 RNA > 10 000 copies/ml and treated with LPV/r 300/75 mg/m twice daily plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at 2 weeks and predose concentrations were collected every 8 weeks; safety and plasma HIV-1 RNA were monitored every 4-12 weeks for 24 weeks.Median age at enrollment was 14.7 weeks (range, 6.9-25.7) and 19/21 completed > or= 24 weeks of study. Although LPV/r apparent clearance was slightly higher than in older children, the median area under the concentration-time curve 0-12 h (67.5 mug.h/ml) was in the range reported from older children taking the recommended dose of 230/57.5 mg/m. Predose concentrations stabilized at a higher level after the first 2 weeks of study. In as-treated analysis at week 24, 10/19 (53%) had plasma HIV-1 RNA < 400 copies/ml (median change, -3.33 log10 copies/ml); poor adherence contributed to delayed viral suppression, which improved with longer follow-up. Three infants (14%) had transient adverse events of grade 3 or more that were possibly related to study treatment but did not require permanent treatment discontinuation.Despite higher clearance in infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, a twice daily dose of 300/75 mg/m LPV/r provided similar exposure to that in older children, was well tolerated and provided favorable virological and clinical efficacy.
Intracellular pharmacokinetics of once versus twice daily zidovudine and lamivudine in adolescents. - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) metabolism to triphosphates (TP) is necessary for antiviral activity. The aims of this study were to compare ZDV-TP and 3TC-TP concentrations in adolescents receiving twice daily (BID) and once daily (QD) regimens and to determine the metabolite concentrations of ZDV and 3TC during chronic therapy on a QD regimen. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (12 to 24 years) taking ZDV (600 mg/day) and 3TC (300 mg/day) as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen received QD and BID regimens of ZDV and 3TC for 7 to 14 days in a crossover design. Serial blood samples were obtained over 24 h on the QD regimen. Intracellular mono-, di-, and triphosphates for ZDV and 3TC were measured. The median ratio of BID/QD for ZDV-TP predose concentrations was 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 2.45) and for 3TC-TP was 1.12 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.96). The typical population estimated half-lives (+/- the standard error of the mean) were 9.1 +/- 0.859 h for ZDV-TP and 17.7 +/- 2.8 h for 3TC-TP. Most patients had detectable levels of the TP of ZDV (24 of 27) and 3TC (24 of 25) 24 h after dosing, and half-lives on a QD regimen were similar to previously reported values when the drugs were given BID. Lower, but not significantly different, concentrations of ZDV-TP were demonstrated in the QD regimen compared to the BID regimen (P = 0.056). Although findings were similar between the BID and QD groups, the lower concentrations of ZDV and the number of patients below the level of detection after 24 h suggests that ZDV should continue to be administered BID.
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