9080 Colima Rd
Whittier CA 90605
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
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License #: A55977
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An APP inhibitory domain containing the Flemish mutation residue modulates gamma-secretase activity for Abeta production. - Nature structural & molecular biology
Gamma-secretase is an aspartyl protease that cleaves multiple substrates within their transmembrane domains. Gamma-secretase processes the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate gamma-amyloid (Agamma) peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that APP possesses a substrate inhibitory domain (ASID) that negatively modulates gamma-secretase activity for Agamma production by binding to an allosteric site within the gamma-secretase complex. Alteration of this ASID by deletion or mutation, as is seen with the Flemish mutation (A21G), reduces its inhibitory potency and promotes Agamma production. Notably, peptides derived from ASID show selective inhibition of gamma-secretase activity for Agamma production over Notch1 processing. Therefore, this mode of regulation represents an unprecedented mechanism for modulating gamma-secretase, providing insight into the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and a potential strategy for the development of therapeutics.
Modulation of gamma-secretase specificity using small molecule allosteric inhibitors. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
gamma-Secretase cleaves multiple substrates within the transmembrane domain that include the amyloid precursor protein as well as the Notch family of receptors. These substrates are associated with Alzheimer disease and cancer. Despite extensive investigation of this protease, little is known regarding the regulation of gamma-secretase specificity. To discover selective inhibitors for drug development and for probing the mechanisms of gamma-secretase specificity, we screened chemical libraries and consequently developed a di-coumarin family of inhibitors that preferentially inhibit gamma-secretase-mediated production of Abeta42 over other cleavage activities. These coumarin dimer-based compounds interact with gamma-secretase by binding to an allosteric site. By developing a multiple photo-affinity probe approach, we demonstrate that this allosteric binding causes a conformational change within the active site of gamma-secretase at the S2 and S1 sub-sites that leads to selective inhibition of Abeta42. In conclusion, by using these di-coumarin compounds, we reveal a mechanism by which gamma-secretase specificity is regulated and provide insights into the molecular basis by which familial presenilin mutations may affect the active site and specificity of gamma-secretase. Furthermore, this class of selective inhibitors provides the basis for development of Alzheimer disease therapeutic agents.
Non-natural and photo-reactive amino acids as biochemical probes of immune function. - PloS one
Wilms tumor protein (WT1) is a transcription factor selectively overexpressed in leukemias and cancers; clinical trials are underway that use altered WT1 peptide sequences as vaccines. Here we report a strategy to study peptide-MHC interactions by incorporating non-natural and photo-reactive amino acids into the sequence of WT1 peptides. Thirteen WT1 peptides sequences were synthesized with chemically modified amino acids (via fluorination and photo-reactive group additions) at MHC and T cell receptor binding positions. Certain new non-natural peptide analogs could stabilize MHC class I molecules better than the native sequences and were also able to elicit specific T-cell responses and sometimes cytotoxicity to leukemia cells. Two photo-reactive peptides, also modified with a biotin handle for pull-down studies, formed covalent interactions with MHC molecules on live cells and provided kinetic data showing the rapid clearance of the peptide-MHC complex. Despite "infinite affinity" provided by the covalent peptide bonding to the MHC, immunogenicity was not enhanced by these peptides because the peptide presentation on the surface was dominated by catabolism of the complex and only a small percentage of peptide molecules covalently bound to the MHC molecules. This study shows that non-natural amino acids can be successfully incorporated into T cell epitopes to provide novel immunological, biochemical and kinetic information.
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9080 Colima Rd Whittier, CA 90605
14350 Whittier Blvd Suite 300
14350 Whittier Blvd Suite 325