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Multiple causes of an unexpected malaria outbreak in a high-transmission area in Madagascar. - Malaria journal
The malaria burden in Madagascar dropped down last decade, largely due to scale-up of control measures. Nevertheless, a significant rise of malaria cases occurred in 2011-2012 in two regions of the rainy South-Eastern Madagascar, where malaria is considered as mesoendemic and the population is supposed to be protected by its acquired immunity against Plasmodium. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted in order to identify the causes of the outbreak.In March 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected clusters, involving the rapid diagnostic testing of allÂ â‰¥6Â month-old members of households and a questionnaire about socio-demographic data and exposure to malaria control interventions. Changes in environmental conditions were evaluated by qualitative interview of local authorities, climatic conditions were evaluated by remote-sensing, and stock outs of malaria supplies in health facilities were evaluated by quantitative means. Two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were sampled in each cluster in order to evaluate their condition and the remanence of their insecticidal activity. The entomological investigation also encompassed the collection Anopheles vectors in two sites, and the measure of their sensitivity to deltamethrin.The cross-sectional survey included 1615 members of 440 households. The mean Plasmodium infection rate was 25.6Â % and the mean bed net use on the day before survey was 71.1Â %. The prevalence of Plasmodium infections was higher in 6-14Â year-old children (odds ratio (OR) 7.73 [95Â % CI 3.58-16.68]), in rural areas (OR 6.25 [4.46-8.76]), in poorest socio-economic tercile (OR 1.54 [1.13-2.08]), and it was lower in individuals sleeping regularly under the bed net (OR 0.51 [0.32-0.82]). Stock outs of anti-malarial drugs in the last 6Â months have been reported in two third of health facilities. Rainfalls were increased as compared with the three previous rainy seasons. Vectors collected were sensitive to pyrethroids. Two years after distribution, nearly all LLINs collected showed a loss of physical integrity and insecticide activity,Increased rainfall, decreasing use and reduced insecticide activity of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, and drug shortages may have been responsible for, or contributed to, the outbreak observed in South-Eastern Madagascar in 2011-2012. Control interventions for malaria elimination must be sustained at the risk of triggering harmful epidemics, even in zones of high transmission.
Delineation of the population genetic structure of Culicoides imicola in East and South Africa. - Parasites & vectors
Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 is the main vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the population genetic structure of this midge and the nature of barriers to gene flow will lead to a deeper understanding of bluetongue epidemiology and more effective vector control in this region.A panel of 12 DNA microsatellite markers isolated de novo and mitochondrial DNA were utilized in a study of C. imicola populations from Africa and an outlier population from the Balearic Islands. The DNA microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA were also used to examine a population of closely related C. bolitinos Meiswinkel midges.The microsatellite data suggest gene flow between Kenya and south-west Indian Ocean Islands exist while a restricted gene flow between Kenya and South Africa C. imicola populations occurs. Genetic distance correlated with geographic distance by Mantel test. The mitochondrial DNA analysis results imply that the C. imicola populations from Kenya and south-west Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar and Mauritius) shared haplotypes while C. imicola population from South Africa possessed private haplotypes and the highest nucleotide diversity among the African populations. The Bayesian skyline plot suggested a population growth.The gene flow demonstrated by this study indicates a potential risk of introduction of new BTV serotypes by wind-borne infected Culicoides into the Islands. Genetic similarity between Mauritius and South Africa may be due to translocation as a result of human-induced activities; this could impact negatively on the livestock industry. The microsatellite markers isolated in this study may be utilised to study C. bolitinos, an important vector of BTV and AHSV in Africa and identify sources of future incursions.
Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission. - Journal of medical entomology
Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar.Â© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Detection in and circulation of Bluetongue virus among domestic ruminants in Madagascar. - Veterinary microbiology
So far, no published data was available concerning the circulation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Madagascar. During a survey on Rift Valley Fever, we were able to detect a virus belonging to BTV. Therefore, we conducted a study aiming at characterizing molecularly the BTV isolated and assess the importance of circulation of BTV in Madagascar. A total of 4393 sera from ruminants selected randomly by stratification and sampled in 30 districts of Madagascar were tested for BTV. Moreover, 175 cattle were followed during 11 months. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from virus isolated from unfed pools of mosquitoes. Overall, the estimated mean seroprevalence of infection at the national level was 95.9% (95% CI: [95.2-96.5]) in cattle and 83.7% (95% CI: [81.4-85.9]) in small ruminants. Estimation of incidence rate was 54 per 100 cattle-years assuming that the incidence rate is constant all year along. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BTV detected belong to serotype 2. In conclusion, our results showed that BTV is endemic in Madagascar and highly prevalent among cattle. In our study we did not work on the vector involved in transmission of BTV in cattle. Thus, research should be conducted to better describe epidemiology of BTV in Madagascar including vectors and assess economic impact of the disease associated to BTV infections.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar. - PloS one
The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%): only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down) and KD90 (90% Knock-Down) times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.
Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar. - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.
Geographic population structure of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae suggests a role for the forest-savannah biome transition as a barrier to gene flow. - Evolutionary applications
The primary Afrotropical malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto has a complex population structure. In west Africa, this species is split into two molecular forms and displays local and regional variation in chromosomal arrangements and behaviors. To investigate patterns of macrogeographic population substructure, 25 An. gambiae samples from 12 African countries were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. This analysis detected the presence of additional population structuring, with the M-form being subdivided into distinct west, central, and southern African genetic clusters. These clusters are coincident with the central African rainforest belt and northern and southern savannah biomes, which suggests restrictions to gene flow associated with the transition between these biomes. By contrast, geographically patterned population substructure appears much weaker within the S-form.
Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean. - Veterinary research
Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007-2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean.
Biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of Madagascar. - Journal of medical entomology
There were epidemic-epizootics of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) affecting humans and cattle in Madagascar in the district of Anjozorobe in 2008. Little is known about the role of Malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of RVF virus. Therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential RVF virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of Anorana), and savanna biotope (village of Antanifotsy) of this district between November 2008 and July 2010. We captured 56,605 adults of 35 different species. Anopheles squamosus (Theobald), Anopheles coustani (Laveran), Culex antennatus (Becker), Culex pipiens (L.), and Culex univittatus (Theobald) were the most abundant during the rainy season with Cx. pipiens the most abundant species in the rainforest (47%), and An. squamosus the most abundant species in the rainforest edge and in the savanna biotope (56%, 60%, respectively). Only Cx. univittatus was abundant in the dry season. The parous rate was > 60% throughout the rainy season for An. squamosus and it was > 50% from the middle to the end of the rainy season for Cx. pipiens. Two additional species have been found only at larval stage. Cattle were the most attractive bait for all species, followed by sheep and poultry. Human was the least attractive for all species. Most of the 163 bloodmeals tested were taken from cattle. Three were from poultry, one was from dog and one was a mixed bloodmeal taken from sheep and cattle. These results on vectorial capacity parameters may allow considering the involvement of mosquito transmission of the virus in the district of Anjozorobe during the recent epidemic-epizootic.
Modification of Anopheles gambiae distribution at high altitudes in Madagascar. - Journal of vector ecology : journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
In Madagascar, Anopheles gambiae has been found below altitudes of 1,000 m. We sampled An. gambiae sensu lato (sl) between 2008 and 2010 in the Central Highlands of Madagascar at altitudes over 1,200 m. The study site consists of rainforest, rainforest edge, and an open savanna biotope. Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis, as well as molecular forms of An. gambiae, were identified molecularly. An. gambiae accounted for 26.7% at the edge of the rainforest and 2.3% in the open savanna biotope. One specimen of this species was caught in the forest. An. arabiensis accounted for 66.3% at the edge of the rainforest and 97.7 % in the open savanna biotope. All An. gambiae adults tested belonged to the S molecular form. An. gambiae is present at high altitudes in Madagascar, with a high prevalence at the rainforest edge. Several factors, including the appearance of new favorable biotopes, recolonization after a reduction of indoor vector control, and climate change, may contribute to its distribution. The changing distribution of An. gambiae may have consequences for the distribution and incidence of malaria in the Malagasy Highlands.Â© 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.
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