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Maternal Early Pregnancy Serum Metabolomics Profile and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding as Predictors of Placental Abruption: A Prospective Study. - PloS one
Placental abruption, an ischemic placental disorder, complicates about 1 in 100 pregnancies, and is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolomics holds promise for improving the phenotyping, prediction and understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of complex clinical disorders including abruption. We sought to evaluate maternal early pregnancy pre-diagnostic serum metabolic profiles and abnormal vaginal bleeding as predictors of abruption later in pregnancy.Maternal serum was collected in early pregnancy (mean 16 weeks, range 15 to 22 weeks) from 51 abruption cases and 51 controls. Quantitative targeted metabolic profiles of serum were acquired using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and the Absolute IDQÂ® p180 kit. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history were abstracted from medical records. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the extent to which metabolites aid in the prediction of abruption. We evaluated the predictive performance of the set of selected metabolites using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC).Early pregnancy vaginal bleeding, dodecanoylcarnitine/dodecenoylcarnitine (C12 / C12:1), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 38:1 (PC ae C38:1) strongly predict abruption risk. The AUC for these metabolites alone was 0.68, for early pregnancy vaginal bleeding alone was 0.65, and combined the AUC improved to 0.75 with the addition of quantitative metabolite data (P = 0.003).Metabolomic profiles of early pregnancy maternal serum samples in addition to the clinical symptom, vaginal bleeding, may serve as important markers for the prediction of abruption. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate and validate these findings in other cohorts.
A Novel Classification System Based on Dissemination of Musculoskeletal Infection is Predictive of Hospital Outcomes. - Journal of pediatric orthopedics
Musculoskeletal infections (MSKIs) are a common cause of pediatric hospitalization. Children affected by MSKI have highly variable hospital courses, which seem to depend on infection severity. Early stratification of infection severity would therefore help to maximize resource utilization and improve patient care. Currently, MSKIs are classified according to primary diagnoses such as osteomyelitis, pyomyositis, etc. These diagnoses, however, do not often occur in isolation and may differ widely in severity. On the basis of this, the authors propose a severity classification system that differentiates patients based on total infection burden and degree of dissemination.The authors developed a classification system with operational definitions for MSKI severity based on the degree of dissemination. The operational definitions were applied retrospectively to a cohort of 202 pediatric patients with MSKI from a tertiary care children's hospital over a 5-year period (2008 to 2013). Hospital outcomes data [length of stay (LOS), number of surgeries, positive blood cultures, duration of antibiotics, intensive care unit LOS, number of days with fever, and number of imaging studies] were collected from the electronic medical record and compared between groups.Patients with greater infection dissemination were more likely to have worse hospital outcomes for LOS, number of surgeries performed, number of positive blood cultures, duration of antibiotics, intensive care unit LOS, number of days with fever, and number of imaging studies performed. Peak C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, and temperature were also higher in patients with more disseminated infection.The severity classification system for pediatric MSKI defined in this study correlates with hospital outcomes and markers of inflammatory response. The advantage of this classification system is that it is applicable to different types of MSKI and represents a potentially complementary system to the previous practice of differentiating MSKI based on primary diagnosis. Early identification of disease severity in children with MSKI has the potential to enhance hospital outcomes through more efficient resource utilization and improved patient care.Level II-prognostic study.
The Final 24-Item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaires (EOSQ-24): Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness. - Journal of pediatric orthopedics
The goal of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treatment is to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients and to reduce the burden on their parents or caregivers. The purpose of this study is to develop and finalize the 24-item Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire (EOSQ-24), and examine the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the EOSQ-24 in measuring patients' HRQoL, the burden on their caregivers, and the burden on their caregiver's finances. The study also established aged-matched normative values for the EOSQ-24.The EOSQ-24 was administered to caregivers of male and female patients aged 0 to 18 years with EOS. Patients with EOS are diagnosed before 10 years of age. Criterion validity was investigated by measuring agreement between its scores and pulmonary function testing. Construct validity was established by comparing values across different etiology groups using the known-group method, and measuring internal consistency reliability. Content validity was confirmed by reviewing caregiver and health provider ratings for the relativity and clarity of the EOSQ-24 questions. Test-retest reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients. Responsiveness of the EOSQ-24 before and after surgical interventions was also investigated. Age-matched, healthy patients, without spinal deformity, were enrolled to establish normative EOSQ-24 values.The pulmonary function subdomain score in the EOSQ-24 was positively correlated with pulmonary function testing values, establishing criterion validity. The EOSQ-24 scores for neuromuscular patients were significantly decreased compared with idiopathic or congenital/structural patients, demonstrating known-group validity. Internal consistency reliability of patients' HRQoL was excellent (0.92), but Family Burden was questionable (0.64) indicating that Parental Burden and Financial Burden should be in separate domains. All 24 EOSQ items were rated as essential and clear, confirming content validity. All EOSQ-24 domains demonstrated good to excellent agreement (0.68 to 0.98) between test and retest scores. Neuromuscular patients improved their HRQoL postoperatively, whereas idiopathic patients worsened their HRQoL postoperatively, indicating the ability of the instrument to respond to different trajectories of HRQoL according to etiology in patients with EOS.The developed and finalized EOSQ-24 is a valid, reliable, and responsive instrument that is able to serve as a patient-reported outcome measure evaluating health status for patients with EOS and burden of their caregivers. This instrument will be able to serve as an outcome measure for future research including clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of various treatments. In addition, the EOSQ-24 allows assessment of patients' HRQoL, and the burden on their caregivers relative to age-matched healthy peers.Level II-diagnostic study with consecutive patients enrolled in national registries.
Papillary cannulation and sphincterotomy techniques at ERCP: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. - Endoscopy
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It provides practical advice on how to achieve successful cannulation and sphincterotomy at minimum risk to the patient. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests that difficult biliary cannulation is defined by the presence of one or more of the following: more than 5 contacts with the papilla whilst attempting to cannulate; more than 5 minutes spent attempting to cannulate following visualization of the papilla; more than one unintended pancreatic duct cannulation or opacification (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 2 ESGE recommends the guidewire-assisted technique for primary biliary cannulation, since it reduces the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 3 ESGE recommends using pancreatic guidewire (PGW)-assisted biliary cannulation in patients where biliary cannulation is difficult and repeated unintentional access to the main pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE recommends attempting prophylactic pancreatic stenting in all patients with PGW-assisted attempts at biliary cannulation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 4 ESGE recommends needle-knife fistulotomy as the preferred technique for precutting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE suggests that precutting should be used only by endoscopists who achieve selective biliary cannulation in more than 80â€Š% of cases using standard cannulation techniques (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). When access to the pancreatic duct is easy to obtain, ESGE suggests placement of a pancreatic stent prior to precutting (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 5 ESGE recommends that in patients with a small papilla that is difficult to cannulate, transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy should be considered if unintentional insertion of a guidewire into the pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation).In patients who have had transpancreatic sphincterotomy, ESGE suggests prophylactic pancreatic stenting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 6 ESGE recommends that mixed current is used for sphincterotomy rather than pure cut current alone, as there is a decreased risk of mild bleeding with the former (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 7 ESGE suggests endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) as an alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for extracting CBD stones <â€Š8â€Šmm in patients without anatomical or clinical contraindications, especially in the presence of coagulopathy or altered anatomy (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 8 ESGE does not recommend routine biliary sphincterotomy for patients undergoing pancreatic sphincterotomy, and suggests that it is reserved for patients in whom there is evidence of coexisting bile duct obstruction or biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 9 In patients with periampullary diverticulum (PAD) and difficult cannulation, ESGE suggests that pancreatic duct stent placement followed by precut sphincterotomy or needle-knife fistulotomy are suitable options to achieve cannulation (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE suggests that EST is safe in patients with PAD. In cases where EST is technically difficult to complete as a result of a PAD, large stone removal can be facilitated by a small EST combined with EPBD or use of EPBD alone (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 10 For cannulation of the minor papilla, ESGE suggests using wire-guided cannulation, with or without contrast, and sphincterotomy with a pull-type sphincterotome or a needle-knife over a plastic stent (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).When cannulation of the minor papilla is difficult, ESGE suggests secretin injection, which can be preceded by methylene blue spray in the duodenum (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 11 In patients with choledocholithiasis who are scheduled for elective cholecystectomy, ESGE suggests intraoperative ERCP with laparoendoscopic rendezvous (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). ESGE suggests that when biliary cannulation is unsuccessful with a standard retrograde approach, anterograde guidewire insertion either by a percutaneous or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided approach can be used to achieve biliary access (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 12 ESGE suggests that in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy ERCP should be performed in referral centers, with the side-viewing endoscope as a first option; forward-viewing endoscopes are the second choice in cases of failure (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). A straight standard ERCP catheter or an inverted sphincterotome, with or without the guidewire, is recommended by ESGE for biliopancreatic cannulation in patients who have undergone Billroth II gastrectomy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). Endoscopic papillary ballon dilation (EPBD) is suggested as an alternative to sphincterotomy for stone extraction in the setting of patients with Billroth II gastrectomy (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).In patients with complex post-surgical anatomy ESGE suggests referral to a center where device-assisted enteroscopy techniques are available (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation).Â© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart Â· New York.
Mathematical modeling of erythrocyte chimerism informs genetic intervention strategies for sickle cell disease. - American journal of hematology
Recent advances in gene therapy and genome-engineering technologies offer the opportunity to correct sickle cell disease (SCD), a heritable disorder caused by a point mutation in the Î²-globin gene. The developmental switch from fetal Î³-globin to adult Î²-globin is governed in part by the transcription factor (TF) BCL11A. This TF has been proposed as a therapeutic target for reactivation of Î³-globin and concomitant reduction of Î²-sickle globin. In this and other approaches, genetic alteration of a portion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment leads to a mixture of sickling and corrected red blood cells (RBCs) in periphery. To reverse the sickling phenotype, a certain proportion of corrected RBCs is necessary; the degree of HSC alteration required to achieve a desired fraction of corrected RBCs remains unknown. To address this issue, we developed a mathematical model describing aging and survival of sickle-susceptible and normal RBCs; the former can have a selective survival advantage leading to their overrepresentation. We identified the level of bone marrow chimerism required for successful stem cell-based gene therapies in SCD. Our findings were further informed using an experimental mouse model, where we transplanted mixtures of Berkeley SCD and normal murine bone marrow cells to establish chimeric grafts in murine hosts. Our integrative theoretical and experimental approach identifies the target frequency of HSC alterations required for effective treatment of sickling syndromes in humans. Our work replaces episodic observations of such target frequencies with a mathematical modeling framework that covers a large and continuous spectrum of chimerism conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Â© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Pregnancy Loss among Women Conceiving with Medically Assisted Reproduction. - Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)
Animal studies demonstrate that several phthalates are embryofetotoxic and are associated with increased pregnancy loss and malformations. Results from human studies on phthalates and pregnancy loss are inconsistent.We examined pregnancy loss prospectively in relation to urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among women undergoing medically assisted reproduction. We used data from 256 women conceiving 303 pregnancies recruited between 2004 and 2012 from the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. We quantified eleven phthalate metabolite concentrations and calculated the molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (Î£DEHP). We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for biochemical loss and total pregnancy loss (<20 weeks' gestation) across quartiles using repeated measures log-binomial models, adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and infertility diagnosis.Of the 303 pregnancies, 83 (27%) ended in loss less than 20 weeks' gestation and among these, 31 (10%) ended in biochemical loss. Although imprecise, the RRs for biochemical loss increased across quartiles of âˆ‘DEHP and three individual DEHP metabolites. For âˆ‘DEHP, the RRs (CIs) were: 2.3 (0.63, 8.5), 2.0 (0.58, 7.2), and 3.4 (0.97, 11.7) for quartiles two, three and four, compared to one, respectively (p-trend=0.04). RRs for total pregnancy loss were elevated in the highest quartiles of Î£DEHP and three DEHP metabolites. The remaining seven phthalate metabolite concentrations evaluated were not associated with either outcome.We found a suggestive pattern of association between conception cycle-specific urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and biochemical and total pregnancy loss among women undergoing medically assisted reproduction.
Morphological variation in Homo erectus and the origins of developmental plasticity. - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
Homo erectus was the first hominin to exhibit extensive range expansion. This extraordinary departure from Africa, especially into more temperate climates of Eurasia, has been variously related to technological, energetic and foraging shifts. The temporal and regional anatomical variation in H. erectus suggests that a high level of developmental plasticity, a key factor in the ability of H. sapiens to occupy a variety of habitats, may also have been present in H. erectus. Developmental plasticity, the ability to modify development in response to environmental conditions, results in differences in size, shape and dimorphism across populations that relate in part to levels of resource sufficiency and extrinsic mortality. These differences predict not only regional variations but also overall smaller adult sizes and lower levels of dimorphism in instances of resource scarcity and high predator load. We consider the metric variation in 35 human and non-human primate 'populations' from known environmental contexts and 14 time- and space-restricted paleodemes of H. erectus and other fossil Homo Human and non-human primates exhibit more similar patterns of variation than expected, with plasticity evident, but in differing patterns by sex across populations. The fossil samples show less evidence of variation than expected, although H. erectus varies more than Neandertals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.Â© 2016 The Author(s).
Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs. - Comparative medicine
Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus-estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-(3)H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294Â±25 Î¼U/kg/min; control, 223Â±21 Î¼U/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 Î¼U/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity.
An overview and discussion of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute's decision aid portfolio. - Journal of comparative effectiveness research
Decision aids (DAs) help patients make informed healthcare decisions in a manner consistent with their values and preferences. Despite their promise, DAs developed with public research dollars are not being implemented and adopted in real-world patient care settings at a rate consistent with which they are being developed. To appraise the sum of the parts of the portfolio and create a strategic imperative surrounding future funding, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) tasked the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group with evaluating its DA portfolio. This paper describes PCORI's portfolio of DAs according to the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group's analysis in the context of PCORI's mission and the field of decision science. The results revealed a diversity within PCORI's portfolio of funded DA projects. Findings support the movement toward more rigorous DA development, assessment and maintenance. PCORI's funding priorities related to DAs are clarified and comparative questions of interest are posed.
Pancreatic SEC23B deficiency is sufficient to explain the perinatal lethality of germline SEC23B deficiency in mice. - Scientific reports
In humans, loss of function mutations in SEC23B result in Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia type II (CDAII), a disease limited to defective erythroid development. Patients with two nonsense SEC23B mutations have not been reported, suggesting that complete SEC23B deficiency might be lethal. We previously reported that SEC23B-deficient mice die perinatally, exhibiting massive pancreatic degeneration and that mice with hematopoietic SEC23B deficiency do not exhibit CDAII. We now show that SEC23B deficiency restricted to the pancreas is sufficient to explain the lethality observed in mice with global SEC23B-deficiency. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrate an acinar cell defect but normal islet cells. Mammalian genomes contain two Sec23 paralogs, Sec23A and Sec23B. The encoded proteins share ~85% amino acid sequence identity. We generate mice with pancreatic SEC23A deficiency and demonstrate that these mice survive normally, exhibiting normal pancreatic weights and histology. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SEC23B but not SEC23A is essential for murine pancreatic development. We also demonstrate that two BAC transgenes spanning Sec23b rescue the lethality of mice homozygous for a Sec23b gene trap allele, excluding a passenger gene mutation as the cause of the pancreatic lethality, and indicating that the regulatory elements critical for Sec23b pancreatic function reside within the BAC transgenes.
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