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The prehospital management of traumatic brain injury. - Handbook of clinical neurology
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability, particularly in younger populations. The prehospital evaluation and management of TBI is a vital link between insult and definitive care and can have dramatic implications for subsequent morbidity. Following a TBI the brain is at high risk for further ischemic injury, with prehospital interventions targeted at reducing this secondary injury while optimizing cerebral physiology. In the following chapter we discuss the prehospital assessment and management of the brain-injured patient. The initial evaluation and physical examination are discussed with a focus on interpretation of specific physical examination findings and interpretation of vital signs. We evaluate patient management strategies including indications for advanced airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and fluid resuscitation, as well as prehospital strategies for the management of suspected or impending cerebral herniation including hyperventilation and brain-directed hyperosmolar therapy. Transport decisions including the role of triage models and trauma centers are discussed. Finally, future directions in the prehospital management of traumatic brain injury are explored.Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Year in review 2013: Critical Care--out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, traumatic injury, and other emergency care conditions. - Critical care (London, England)
In this review, we discuss articles published in 2013 contributing to the existing literature on the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the evaluation and management of several other emergency conditions, including traumatic injury. The utility of intravenous medications, including epinephrine and amiodarone, in the management of cardiac arrest is questioned, as are cardiac arrest termination-of-resuscitation rules. Articles discussing mode of transportation in trauma are evaluated, and novel strategies for outcome prediction in traumatic injury are proposed. Diagnostic strategies, including computerized tomography scan for the diagnosis of smoke inhalation injury and serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of post-cardiac arrest syndrome and acute aortic dissection, are also explored. Although many of the articles discussed raise more questions than they answer, they nevertheless provide ample opportunity for further investigation.
A randomized study of contingency management and spirometric lung age for motivating smoking cessation among injection drug users. - BMC public health
Even after quitting illicit drugs, tobacco abuse remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in former injection drug users. An important unmet need in this population is to have effective interventions that can be used in the context of community based care. Contingency management, where a patient receives a monetary incentive for healthy behavior choices, and incorporation of individual counseling regarding spirometric "lung age" (the age of an average healthy individual with similar spirometry) have been shown to improve cessation rates in some populations. The efficacy of these interventions on improving smoking cessation rates has not been studied among current and former injection drug users.In a randomized, factorial design study, we recruited 100 active smokers from an ongoing cohort study of current and former injection drug users to assess the impact of contingency management and spirometric lung age on smoking cessation. The primary outcome was 6-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessation comparing contingency management, spirometric lung age or both to usual care. Secondary outcomes included differences in self-reported and biologically-confirmed cessation at interim visits, number of visits attended and quit attempts, smoking rates at interim visits, and changes in Fagerstrom score and self-efficacy.Six-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessations rates were 4% usual care, 0% lung age, 14% contingency management and 0% for combined lung age and contingency management (p = 0.13). There were no differences in secondary endpoints comparing the four interventions or when pooling the lung age groups. Comparing contingency management to non-contingency management, 6-month cessation rates were not different (7% vs. 2%; p = 0.36), but total number of visits with exhaled carbon monoxide-confirmed abstinence were higher for contingency management than non-contingency management participants (0.38 vs. 0.06; p = 0.03), and more contingency management participants showed reduction in their Fagerstrom score from baseline to follow-up (39% vs. 18%; p = 0.03).While lung age appeared ineffective, contingency management was associated with more short-term abstinence and lowered nicotine addiction. Contingency management may be a useful tool in development of effective tobacco cessation strategies among current and former injection drug users.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01334736 (April 12, 2011).
Year in review 2012: Critical Care--Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and trauma. - Critical care (London, England)
In 2012 Critical Care published many articles pertaining to the resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and trauma. In this review, we summarize several of these articles, including those regarding advances in resuscitation techniques and methods. We examine articles pertaining to prehospital endotracheal intubation, the use of specialized devices for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and policies regarding transport destinations for both cardiac arrest and trauma patients. Articles on the predictors of outcome in both pediatric and adult populations are evaluated, including articles on the effects of obesity on survival from hemorrhage and pediatric outcomes from traumatic cardiac arrest. The effects of the type and volume of resuscitation fluids for both adult and pediatric patients are discussed, as are the factors contributing to hypothermia in trauma patients.
Yield of routine provocative cardiac testing among patients in an emergency department-based chest pain unit. - JAMA internal medicine
The American Heart Association recommends routine provocative cardiac testing in accelerated diagnostic protocols for coronary ischemia. The diagnostic and therapeutic yield of this approach are unknown.To assess the yield of routine provocative cardiac testing in an emergency department-based chest pain unit.We examined a prospectively collected database of patients evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome between March 4, 2004, and May 15, 2010, in the emergency department-based chest pain unit of an urban academic tertiary care center.Patients with signs or symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome and without an ischemic electrocardiography result or a positive biomarker were enrolled in the database.All patients were evaluated by exercise stress testing or myocardial perfusion imaging.Demographic and clinical features, results of routine provocative cardiac testing and angiography, and therapeutic interventions were recorded. Diagnostic yield (true-positive rate) was calculated, and the potential therapeutic yield of invasive therapy was assessed through blinded, structured medical record review using American Heart Association designations (class I, IIa, IIb, or lower) for the potential benefit from percutaneous intervention.In total, 4181 patients were enrolled in the study. Chest pain was initially reported in 93.5%, most (73.2%) were at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease, and 37.6% were male. Routine provocative cardiac testing was positive for coronary ischemia in 470 (11.2%), of whom 123 underwent coronary angiography. Obstructive disease was confirmed in 63 of 123 (51.2% true positive), and 28 (0.7% overall) had findings consistent with the potential benefit from revascularization (American Heart Association class I or IIa).In an emergency department-based chest pain unit, routine provocative cardiac testing generated a small therapeutic yield, new diagnoses of coronary artery disease were uncommon, and false-positive results were common.
Year in review 2011: Critical Care--Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and trauma. - Critical care (London, England)
In 2011, numerous studies were published in Critical Care focusing on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, trauma, and some related airway, respiratory, and response time factors. In this review, we summarize several of these studies, including those that brought forth advances in therapies for the post-resuscitative period. These advances involved hypothesis-generating concepts in therapeutic hypothermia as well as the impact of early percutaneous coronary artery interventions and the potential utility of extracorporeal life support after cardiac arrest. There were also articles pertaining to the importance of timing in prehospital airway management, the outcome impact of hyperoxia, and the timing of end-tidal carbon dioxide measurements to predict futility in cardiac arrest resuscitation. In other articles, additional perspectives were provided on the classic correlations between emergency medical service response intervals and outcomes.
Principles of Emergency Department facility design for optimal management of mass-casualty incidents. - Prehospital and disaster medicine
The Emergency Department (ED) is the triage, stabilization and disposition unit of the hospital during a mass-casualty incident (MCI). With most EDs already functioning at or over capacity, efficient management of an MCI requires optimization of all ED components. While the operational aspects of MCI management have been well described, the architectural/structural principles have not. Further, there are limited reports of the testing of ED design components in actual MCI events. The objective of this study is to outline the important infrastructural design components for optimization of ED response to an MCI, as developed, implemented, and repeatedly tested in one urban medical center.In the authors' experience, the most important aspects of ED design for MCI have included external infrastructure and promoting rapid lockdown of the facility for security purposes; an ambulance bay permitting efficient vehicle flow and casualty discharge; strategic placement of the triage location; patient tracking techniques; planning adequate surge capacity for both patients and staff; sufficient command, control, communications, computers, and information; well-positioned and functional decontamination facilities; adequate, well-located and easily distributed medical supplies; and appropriately built and functioning essential services.Designing the ED to cope well with a large casualty surge during a disaster is not easy, and it may not be feasible for all EDs to implement all the necessary components. However, many of the components of an appropriate infrastructural design add minimal cost to the normal expenditures of building an ED.This study highlights the role of design and infrastructure in MCI preparedness in order to assist planners in improving their ED capabilities. Structural optimization calls for a paradigm shift in the concept of structural and operational ED design, but may be necessary in order to maximize surge capacity, department resilience, and patient and staff safety.
Direct measurement of the lethal isotherm for radiofrequency ablation of myocardial tissue. - Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology
The lethal isotherm for radiofrequency catheter ablation of cardiac myocardium is widely accepted to be 50Â°C, but this has not been directly measured. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the tissue temperature at the edge of radiofrequency lesions in real time using infrared thermal imaging.Fifteen radiofrequency lesions of 6 to 240 seconds in duration were applied to the left ventricular surface of isolated perfused pig hearts. At the end of radiofrequency delivery, a thermal image of the tissue surface was acquired with an infrared camera. The lesion was then stained and an optical image of the lesion was obtained. The thermal and optical images were electronically merged to allow determination of the tissue temperature at the edge of the lesion at the end of radiofrequency delivery. By adjusting the temperature overlay display to conform with the edge of the radiofrequency lesion, the lethal isotherm was measured to be 60.6Â°C (interquartile ranges, 59.7Â° to 62.4Â°C; range, 58.1Â° to 64.2Â°C). The areas encompassed by the lesion border in the optical image and the lethal isotherm in the thermal image were statistically similar and highly correlated (Spearman Ï=0.99, P<0.001). The lethal isotherm temperature was not related to the duration of radiofrequency delivery or to lesion size (both P>0.64). The areas circumscribed by 50Â°C isotherms were significantly larger than the areas of the lesions on optical imaging (P=0.002).By direct measurement, the lethal isotherm for cardiac myocardium is near 61Â°C for radiofrequency energy deliveries <240 seconds in duration. A 50Â°C isotherm overestimates lesion size. Accurate knowledge of the lethal isotherm for radiofrequency ablation is important to clinical practice as well as mathematical modeling of radiofrequency lesions.
Effect of electrode orientation on lesion sizes produced by irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheters. - Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters may produce different lesion sizes dependent upon the electrode orientation to the tissue. This study examined the effect of irrigated electrode orientation on the lesion size and explores a potential mechanism for this effect.Lesions were created in isolated porcine myocardium using an open irrigation, closed irrigation, and nonirrigated RF catheter (all 3.5-4 mm tips). Lesions were created with the electrodes with all permutations of electrode orientation (vertical or horizontal), contact pressure (6 or 20 g), and saline superfusate flow (0.2 or 0.4 m/sec) over tissue interface. The effect of electrode irrigation without RF delivery on tissue temperature was assessed with intramyocardial temperature probes and infrared thermal imaging. For both irrigated catheters, the horizontal orientation produced 25-30% smaller lesion volumes than the vertical orientation despite equal or greater power deliveries. The horizontal orientation produced larger lesion volumes for the nonirrigated catheter. Higher superfusate flow rates were associated with decreased lesion volumes for the irrigated catheters but greater lesion volumes for the nonirrigated catheter. Catheter irrigation alone without RF delivery reduced intramyocardial temperatures up to 4.9 degrees C and the horizontal orientation produced a 2-fold greater area of tissue cooling than the vertical orientation.Horizontal electrode orientations reduce lesion volumes for irrigated RF catheters. This effect may be in part due to greater areas of active tissue cooling in the horizontal orientation.
Prostaglandin inhibitors in the treatment of single-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis: pharmacologic rationale and report of two cases. - Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
Therapeutic trials have confirmed the efficacy of a number of approaches to the treatment of single-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Not so well studied, but with some pharmacologic rationale and anecdotal reports of clinical success, are prostaglandin inhibitors. We present here a review of the possible mechanism of action of prostaglandin inhibitors in LCH and 2 cases of single-organ, single-site LCH treated with only prostaglandin inhibitors, both with sustained favorable clinical outcomes.
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