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Hardwick VT 05843
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Esophageal Cancer: Associations With (pN+) Lymph Node Metastases. - Annals of surgery
To identify the associations of lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer.Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics.Data on 5806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques.pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5â€Šcm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones.In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status.
Minimally invasive thymectomy: the Mayo Clinic experience. - Annals of cardiothoracic surgery
The prevalence of minimally invasive thymectomy (MIT) is increasing and may have significant benefit to patients in terms of morbidity and post-operative recovery. Our aim was to review the Mayo Clinic experience of MIT.We reviewed data from all MIT cases collected in a prospectively maintained database from January 1995 to February 2015. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, perioperative management and patient outcomes.A total of 510 thymectomies were performed in 20 years. Fifty-six patients underwent MIT (45 video-assisted thoracoscopy, 11 robotic-assisted). The median age was 55 years (range, 23-87 years) with male to female ratio of 25:31. Thymoma was the main pathologic diagnosis in 27/56 patients (48%), with 11/27 (41%) associated with myasthenia gravis (MG), and 16/27 (59%) non-MG. Other pathologies included 1/56 (2%) of each teratoma, lymphoma, lymphangioma, carcinoma and thymolipoma. There were 3/56 (5%) atrophic glands, 4/56 (7%) cysts, 6/56 (11%) benign glands and 11/56 (20%) hyperplastic. Mean blood loss (mL) and operative time (min) were significantly lower in the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) group compared to robotic (65Â±41 vs. 160Â±205 mL, P=0.04 and 102Â±39 vs. 178Â±53 min, P=0.001, respectively). There was no 30-day mortality. Post-operative morbidity occurred in 7/45 (16%) VATS patients (phrenic nerve palsy 7%, pericarditis 4%, atrial fibrillation 2%, pleural effusion 2%) and 1/11 (9%) robotic (urinary retention requiring self-catheterization). Reoperation was required in 1/3 of VATS patients with phrenic nerve palsy. There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay [VATS 1.5 days (range, 1-4 days) and robotic 2 days (range, 1-5 days) VATS; P=0.05]. Mean follow-up was 18.4 months (range, 1-50.4 months) with no tumor recurrences.MIT can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. VATS is associated with reduced blood loss, operative times and earlier hospital discharge compared to robotic MIT.
Strontium-90 Biokinetics from Simulated Wound Intakes in Non-human Primates Compared with Combined Model Predictions from National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 156 and International Commission on Radiological Protection Publicat - Health physics
This study had a goal to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) wound model coupled to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) systemic model for Sr-contaminated wounds using non-human primate data. Studies were conducted on 13 macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys, each receiving one-time intramuscular injections of Sr solution. Urine and feces samples were collected up to 28 d post-injection and analyzed for Sr activity. Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) software was configured with default NCRP and ICRP model transfer coefficients to calculate predicted Sr intake via the wound based on the radioactivity measured in bioassay samples. The default parameters of the combined models produced adequate fits of the bioassay data, but maximum likelihood predictions of intake were overestimated by a factor of 1.0 to 2.9 when bioassay data were used as predictors. Skeletal retention was also over-predicted, suggesting an underestimation of the excretion fraction. Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo sampling were applied using IMBA to vary the default parameters, producing updated transfer coefficients for individual monkeys that improved model fit and predicted intake and skeletal retention. The geometric means of the optimized transfer rates for the 11 cases were computed, and these optimized sample population parameters were tested on two independent monkey cases and on the 11 monkeys from which the optimized parameters were derived. The optimized model parameters did not improve the model fit in most cases, and the predicted skeletal activity produced improvements in three of the 11 cases. The optimized parameters improved the predicted intake in all cases but still over-predicted the intake by an average of 50%. The results suggest that the modified transfer rates were not always an improvement over the default NCRP and ICRP model values.
The Autophagy Receptor TAX1BP1 and the Molecular Motor Myosin VI Are Required for Clearance of Salmonella Typhimurium by Autophagy. - PLoS pathogens
Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, by eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy. The absence of TAX1BP1 causes an accumulation of ubiquitin-positive Salmonella, whereas loss of myosin VI leads to an increase in ubiquitylated and LC3-positive bacteria. Our structural studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin-binding site of TAX1BP1 overlaps with the myosin VI binding site and point mutations in the TAX1BP1 zinc finger domains that affect ubiquitin binding also ablate binding to myosin VI. This mutually exclusive binding and the association of TAX1BP1 with LC3 on the outer limiting membrane of autophagosomes may suggest a molecular mechanism for recruitment of this motor to autophagosomes. The predominant role of TAX1BP1, a paralogue of NDP52, in xenophagy is supported by our evolutionary analysis, which demonstrates that functionally intact NDP52 is missing in Xenopus and mice, whereas TAX1BP1 is expressed in all vertebrates analysed. In summary, this work highlights the importance of TAX1BP1 as a novel autophagy receptor in myosin VI-mediated xenophagy. Our study identifies essential new machinery for the autophagy-dependent clearance of Salmonella typhimurium and suggests modulation of myosin VI motor activity as a potential therapeutic target in cellular immunity.
Comparison of Two National Databases for General Thoracic Surgery. - The Annals of thoracic surgery
Improving the quality of surgical care through accurate measurement of outcomes is an important endeavor. The purpose of this study was to compare data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) general thoracic surgery database to determine if a sampling technique (ACS NSQIP) is as effective and accurate as the comprehensive technique (STS database).A common data abstractor collected and recorded data for the ACS NSQIP and STS database from our institution for the year 2012. The data was completely deidentified and analyzed for demographics, preoperative risk factors, mortality, and morbidity.The STS database recorded 1,595 (100%) operations for the year 2012, whereas the ACS NSQIP by design collects a limited sample and recorded 308 (19.3%) operations. Postoperative events were recorded in 17.2% of ACS NSQIP operations and in 30.1% of operations reported in the STS database. As more specific operations are examined, errors in the NSQIP data increase significantly. For example, the ACS NSQIP underestimated the pneumonia rate for lobectomy (5.9% versus 10.9%) and overestimated the pneumonia rate for an Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy (23.8% vs 18.8%). When the ACS NSQIP was used to compare our institution to the ACS NSQIP national norms, our institution was ranked in the lowest eighth decile for 30-day operative mortality; however, we were better than average when using STS database data (1.2% [2 of 162 procedures] vs 1.4% [538 of 37,324 procedures]) for pulmonary resections and 3.0% (3 of 100 procedures) vs 3.6% [138 of 3,865 procedures] for esophagectomy).Databases built on partial sampling that do not capture all patients, such as the ACS NSQIP, may be useful for global analyses, but fall short of providing a foundation for meaningful quality improvement initiatives when analyzing data for specific thoracic surgical operations. These results highlight the utility and importance of complete databases such as the STSDB. National comparisons of clinical outcomes for thoracic surgical procedures should be interpreted with caution when using partial databases.Copyright Â© 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Surgery of the Trachea. - The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Surgical procedures on the trachea have only been undertaken within the past 50 years. Knowing the unique blood supply of the trachea and how to reduce tension on any anastomosis are key to a successful outcome. Tracheal conditions requiring surgery usually present with shortness of breath on exertion, and preoperative evaluation involves computed tomography and rigid bronchoscopy. Tracheal resection and reconstruction can be safely performed with excellent outcomes by following a well-described technique.
Surgical Resection of Rare Esophageal Cancers. - The Annals of thoracic surgery
Although surgical resection of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is standard practice, the treatment strategy for other malignant rare esophageal cancers is still under debate. The aim of this study was to examine the treatment of rare malignant esophageal cancers and to evaluate the survival of these patients.A retrospective review of all esophagectomies performed at Mayo Clinic from 1980 to 2014 (approximately 4,000 cases) identified 24 patients with histologic features other than adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. Their medical records were reviewed for demographics, presenting symptoms, evaluation, surgical management, pathologic features, and short-term and long-term outcome.Pathologic identifications included small cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma in 4 (16.7%) patients each and neuroendocrine, melanoma, leiomyosarcoma, sarcomatoid, sarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 2 (8.3%) patients each. The most common presenting symptoms included dysphasia in 91.7% patients (22/24), pain in 75.0% (18/24), and weight loss in 62.5% (15/24). Preoperative evaluation included barium swallow in 91.7% (22/24), computed tomography in 91.7% (22/24), positron emission tomography in 54.2% (13/24), esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 100% (24/24), and endoscopic ultrasonography in 29.2% (7/24) patients. The location of the tumor was at the gastroesophageal junction in 41.7% (10/24). There was no operative mortality, and 13 patients (54.16%) had at least one postoperative adverse event. The 1-year survival after esophagectomy was 69.7%, the 5-year survival was 42.7%, and the 10-year survival was 37.4%.Esophageal cancer with pathologic features other than squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma is rare. Esophagectomy for rare types of malignant esophageal cancers should be considered part of the effective treatment paradigm.Copyright Â© 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood. - The British journal of developmental psychology
This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24Â months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of anÂ increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young childrenÂ who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood.Â© 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Rapid homogeneous endothelialization of high aspect ratio microvascular networks. - Biomedical microdevices
Microvascularization of an engineered tissue construct is necessary to ensure the nourishment and viability of the hosted cells. Microvascular constructs can be created by seeding the luminal surfaces of microfluidic channel arrays with endothelial cells. However, in a conventional flow-based system, the uniformity of endothelialization of such an engineered microvascular network is constrained by mass transfer of the cells through high length-to-diameter (L/D) aspect ratio microchannels. Moreover, given the inherent limitations of the initial seeding process to generate a uniform cell coating, the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of microfluidic systems demands long culture periods for the formation of confluent cellular microconduits. In this report, we describe the design of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) microvascular constructs with reentrant microchannels that facilitates rapid, spatially homogeneous endothelial cell seeding of a high L/D (2 cm/35 Î¼m; > 550:1) aspect ratio microchannels. MEMS technology was employed for the fabrication of a monolithic, elastomeric, reentrant microvascular construct. Isotropic etching and PDMS micromolding yielded a near-cylindrical microvascular channel array. A 'stretch - seed - seal' operation was implemented for uniform incorporation of endothelial cells along the entire microvascular area of the construct yielding endothelialized microvascular networks in less than 24 h. The feasibility of this endothelialization strategy and the uniformity of cellularization were established using confocal microscope imaging.
Can an Arthroplasty Registry Help Decrease Transfusions in Primary Total Joint Replacement? A Quality Initiative. - Clinical orthopaedics and related research
Standardized care plans are effective at controlling cost and quality. Registries provide insights into quality and outcomes for use of implants, but most registries do not combine implant and care quality data. In 2012, several Michigan area hospitals and a major insurance provider formed a voluntary statewide total joint database/registry, the Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative (MARCQI), to collect procedural, hospital, discharge, and readmission data. Noting substantial variation in transfusion practices after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in our institutions, we used these prospectively collected data to examine whether awareness and education of the American Association of Blood Banks' (AABB) transfusion guidelines would result in decreased transfusions.(1) Can an established arthroplasty registry help implement a quality initiative (QI) designed to decrease the proportion of transfused postoperative patients undergoing TJA? (2) Do data-driven transfusion protocols decrease length of stay without increasing ischemic complications (myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular accidents)? (3) Are decreased transfusion proportions associated with decreased readmissions, nonischemic morbidity (including deep vein thrombosis and deep prosthetic infection), and mortality in postoperative patients who had undergone TJA?After reviewing data from the recently established MARCQI registry, the orthopaedic department noticed many discrepancies and practice variances regarding blood transfusions among their providers. In October 2013, a QI was implemented to raise awareness of the discrepancies and education about the AABB guidelines was presented at the monthly orthopaedic service line meeting. A total of 1872 TJA cases were reviewed; 50 were excluded for incomplete data and two for intraoperative transfusions for the period before education (May 2012 to June 2013, n = 1240) and after education (November 2013 to April 2014, n = 580). Data collected included gender, age, length of stay, body mass index, preoperative hemoglobin level, lowest postoperative hemoglobin level during admission, transfusion status, number of units transfused, ischemic and nonischemic morbidity, hospital readmissions within 90 days, and mortality. Pre- and post-QI transfusion proportions were calculated. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and a multivariate analysis were performed to compare differences in transfusion proportions for patients with a postoperative hemoglobin â‰¥ 8 g/dL.Overall, the percentage of patients transfused with a postoperative hemoglobin â‰¥ 8 g/dL decreased 80% (6.5% [71 of 1092] versus 1.3% [seven of 538]; odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-11.6; p < 0.001) after the educational intervention. Before education, 16% (195 of 1240) of all patients undergoing TJA were transfused, whereas 6.5% (71 of 1092) were outside recommended AABB guidelines (hemoglobin â‰¥ 8 g/dL). In the 6 months after QI initiation, overall transfusions decreased to 6% (35 of 580) with 1.3% (seven of 538) having a hemoglobin â‰¥ 8 g/dL. The mean length of stay for nontransfused patients was shorter (2.4 days Â± 0.9 versus 3.3 days Â± 1.1, p < 0.001) and ischemic complications did not differ between groups (0.32% [four of 1240] versus 0.34% [two of 580], p = 0.61). Before and after education, neither the number of readmissions (5.4% [67 of 1240] versus 4.7% [27 of 580], p = 0.50) nor morbidity (3.6% [45 of 1240] versus 2.4% [14 of 580], p = 0.17) differed between time periods. There were no deaths.Simple education and awareness of quality practices drive safety and compliance. The impact can be immediate and lasting. Arthroplasty registries that combine procedural and care quality data are vital and may be used for important data-driven QIs.Level III, therapeutic study.
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