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MRI evaluation and complications of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. - Clinical imaging
Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a relatively new surgical technique for the treatment of recurrent patellar instability and dislocation. Radiologic findings following MPFL reconstruction are not well described in the existing literature. Here, we review the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL, review imaging findings following double-bundle MPFL reconstruction, and show examples of complications arising from reconstruction.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical relevance and imaging features of isolated single bundle anterior cruciate tear and single bundle augmentation. - Clinical imaging
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two anatomic and functional bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle. Depending on the mechanism of injury, there are different injury patterns, demonstrating a wide spectrum of partial ACL tears. Single bundle partial ACL tears can be treated with augmentation. Theoretically, sparing the intact parts of the ACL may increase vascularization and proprioception and may result in better stability and improved clinical outcome for the patient. In this article, we review the anatomy and function of ACL bundles and demonstrate cases of single bundle ACL tear with subsequent augmentation.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How to optimize the use of MRI in anatomic ACL reconstruction. - Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most current diagnostic imaging procedure for suspected ACL injuries. It is an accurate, highly sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of ACL tears, graft tears and associated injuries. However, it can also be used for various other aspects of anatomic ACL reconstruction.Special sequences as the oblique sagittal plane should be obtained from a parallel line to the lateral epicondyle, ensuring a proper visualization of both bundles of the ACL. Another special set of images, the oblique-coronal sequence, allows for the ACL long-axis evaluation. The coronal-oblique sequence increases the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing isolated AM or PL bundle injuries and also helps to visualize the proximal insertion of the bundles for haemorrhage and rupture.Quantitative measurements can be taken from a proper MRI protocol, so as to determine the rupture pattern; measure insertion site size, inclination angle and autograft size; and evaluate for post-operative complications. These parameters help surgeons to objectively decide for a better graft and technique for an individualized approach and to evaluate the anatomic placement of the graft.MRI can be used in different ways, serving as a very valuable tool in anatomic ACL reconstruction. Special protocols can provide accurate visualization of the double-bundle anatomy. Objective parameters to aid in pre-operative decisions and graft's anatomic placement evaluation can be also extracted from the MR images.
CT of nonneoplastic hepatic vascular and perfusion disorders. - Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
The unique dual blood supply of the liver (75% portal venous, 25% hepatic arterial) makes multiphase helical computed tomography (CT) a highly suitable technique for hepatic evaluation with imaging in two (arterial and portal venous) or more phases. Multiphase helical CT has become an important tool in the detection and characterization of hepatic tumors. In some situations, hemodynamic changes might mimic neoplastic or inflammatory lesions and evoke diagnostic uncertainty. To confidently identify hepatic conditions such as venous outflow obstruction (Budd-Chiari syndrome), arterioportal shunts, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome), peliosis hepatis, passive congestion, and hepatic infarction, radiologists must be familiar with the disease-specific CT appearances and related clinical manifestations.
Pre- and postoperative evaluation of urethral diverticulum. - AJR. American journal of roentgenology
The purpose of this article is to review the diagnostic imaging findings, differential diagnosis, complications, and postoperative imaging appearance of urethral diverticulum.With increased clinical awareness and advanced imaging techniques, diagnoses of urethral diverticula are more frequent, and radiologists need to be aware of the pre- and postoperative imaging appearances of this disorder.
Ferumoxtran-10-enhanced MR lymphangiography: does contrast-enhanced imaging alone suffice for accurate lymph node characterization? - AJR. American journal of roentgenology
Ferumoxtran-10 is a lymphotropic MR contrast agent that is currently under investigation. It has been shown to be effective in staging lymph nodes of patients with various primary malignancies. The current technique with ferumoxtran-10 involves imaging before and 24 hr after contrast administration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ferumoxtran-10-enhanced images alone in characterizing lymph nodes for oncologic staging 24 hr after contrast enhancement.Seventy-seven patients (58 men, 19 women) with proven primary cancer (bladder [n = 20], breast [n = 10], endometrial [n = 1], renal [n = 3], penile [n = 4], prostate [n = 31], rectal [n = 1], testicular [n = 5], and ureteral [n = 2]) who were scheduled for surgical lymph node dissection were enrolled in the study. In these patients, 169 lymph nodes (mean size, 11.2 mm) were evaluated on T2*-weighted gradient-refocused echo MRI at l.5 T both before and 24-36 hr after the IV administration of ferumoxtran-10 (2.6 mg Fe/kg). Two blinded reviewers with differing levels of interpreting experience separately performed qualitative image evaluation. A 6-point scale was used to characterize lymph nodes on contrast-enhanced images alone and on combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed separately for both reviewers.Of the 169 lymph nodes evaluated, 55 were benign and 114 malignant by histopathologic analysis. The results of the ROC analysis comparing contrast-enhanced images ([A(z) = area under ROC curve] reviewer 1, A(z) = 0.92; reviewer 2, A(z) = 0.94) alone with combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images (reviewer 1, A(z) = 0.94; reviewer 2, A(z) = 0.93) showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.01) for reviewer 1 but no difference for reviewer 2 (p = 0.88). Reviewer 2 was more experienced in interpreting ferumoxtran-10-enhanced images than reviewer 1.On ferumoxtran-10-enhanced MR lymphangiography, contrast-enhanced images alone may suffice for lymph node characterization. However, a certain level of interpretation experience may be required before contrast-enhanced images can be used alone.
Current concepts in lymph node imaging. - Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
The accurate identification and characterization of lymph nodes by imaging has important therapeutic and prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed cancers. The presence of nodal metastases limits the therapeutic options and also generally indicates worse prognosis in patients. Thus, it becomes crucial to have this information before commencing therapy. Current cross-sectional imaging modalities rely on insensitive size and morphologic criteria and, thus, lack the desired accuracy for characterizing lymph nodes. This is mainly because metastases can be present in non-enlarged lymph nodes and not all enlarged nodes are malignant. PET has overcome some of these limitations but is still constrained by current resolution limits for small nodal metastases. This has fueled the development of targeted techniques for nodal imaging and characterization as outlined in this article. In the past few years, studies have shown that these newer imaging techniques can bridge some of the limitations of existing imaging for nodal characterization and thereby provide the much-needed staging information before the initiation of therapy.
MR lymphangiography: imaging strategies to optimize the imaging of lymph nodes with ferumoxtran-10. - Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Detection of local or regional metastases to lymph nodes is clinically important in virtually any type of primary tumor. Current imaging techniques rely heavily on the size criterion for characterization of nodal disease. However, size can be an ineffective parameter for diagnosis of tumor spread to lymph nodes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed before and after administration of ferumoxtran-10 is a promising technique for characterization of lymph nodes in patients with various primary tumors. Normal homogeneous uptake of ferumoxtran-10 in nonmetastatic nodes shortens the T2 and T2*, turning these nodes dark, whereas malignant nodes lack uptake and remain hyperintense. To optimize acquisition strategies, the following factors should be considered: the timing of contrast material-enhanced imaging, the section thickness, the imaging plane, and the imaging parameters for T2*-weighted sequences. In addition, MR imaging with ferumoxtran-10 allows presurgical mapping of lymph nodes and quantitative estimation of T2*.Copyright RSNA, 2004
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