9059 W Lake Pleasant Pkwy Suite 700
Peoria AZ 85382
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The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis. - Biomolecular detection and quantification
Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the Î²-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.
Effects of a municipal effluent on the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata following challenge with Vibrio anguillarum. - Journal of environmental sciences (China)
The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of exposure to a pathogenic bacteria and municipal effluent in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of an ozone-treated effluent at 15Â°C for 7days. A sub-group of mussels was inoculated with Vibrio anguillarum and exposed to the same conditions as above. After the exposure period, mussels were collected to assess hemocyte count and viability, immunocompetence (phagocytosis and nitrite production), oxidative stress/inflammation (cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation) and oxygen radical/xenobiotic scavenging activity (metallothioniens, glutathione S-transferase). The results showed that mussels exposed to municipal effluent had increased hemocyte counts, phagocytosis, nitrites, lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins. In the inoculated mussels, the same responses were observed, in addition to cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Multivariate analyses revealed that (1) the response pattern changed with effluent concentration, where increased responses observed at low effluent concentrations (>10%, V/V) were attenuated at higher effluent concentrations, (2) the effluent produced more pronounced changes in lipid peroxidation, metallothionein and hemocyte viability, and (3) the simultaneous presence of V. anguillarum led to more important changes in hemocyte count and viability and nitrite levels. In conclusion, the presence of V. anguillarum could alter the response of mussels to municipal effluent, which could lead to increased inflammation in mussels.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Transfer, transformation, and impacts of ceria nanomaterials in aquatic mesocosms simulating a pond ecosystem. - Environmental science & technology
Mesocosms are an invaluable tool for addressing the complex issue of exposure during nanoecotoxicological testing. This experimental strategy was used to take into account parameters as the interactions between the NPs and naturally occurring (in)organic colloids (heteroaggregation), or the flux between compartments of the ecosystems (aqueous phase, sediments, biota) when assessing the impacts of CeO2 NPs in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we determine the transfer, redox transformation, and impacts of 1 mg L(-1) of bare and citrate coated CeO2-NPs toward an ecologically relevant organism (snail, Planorbarius corneus) exposed 4 weeks in a complex experimental system mimicking a pond ecosystem. Over time, CeO2-NPs tend to homo- and heteroaggregate and to accumulate on the surficial sediment. The kinetic of settling down was coating-dependent and related to the coating degradation. After 4 weeks, Ce was observed in the digestive gland of benthic organisms and associated with 65-80% of Ce(IV) reduction into Ce(III) for both bare and coated CeO2 NPs. A transitory oxidative stress was observed for bare CeO2-NPs. Coated-NPs exposed snails did not undergo any lipid peroxidation nor change in the antioxidant contents, while Ce content and reduction in the digestive gland were identical to bare CeO2-NPs. We hypothesized that the presence of citrate coating enhanced the defense capacity of the cells toward the oxidative stress induced by the CeO2 core.
Innovation through Wearable Sensors to Collect Real-Life Data among Pediatric Patients with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. - International journal of pediatrics
Background. While increasing evidence links environments to health behavior, clinicians lack information about patients' physical activity levels and lifestyle environments. We present mobile health tools to collect and use spatio-behavioural lifestyle data for personalized physical activity plans in clinical settings. Methods. The Dyn@mo lifestyle intervention was developed at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Center to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary time among children with cardiometabolic risk factors. Mobility, physical activity, and heart rate were measured in free-living environments during seven days. Algorithms processed data to generate spatio-behavioural indicators that fed a web-based interactive mapping application for personalised counseling. Proof of concept and tools are presented using data collected among the first 37 participants recruited in 2011. Results. Valid accelerometer data was available for 5.6 (SD = 1.62) days in average, heart rate data for 6.5 days, and GPS data was available for 6.1 (2.1) days. Spatio-behavioural indicators were shared between patients, parents, and practitioners to support counseling. Conclusion. Use of wearable sensors along with data treatment algorithms and visualisation tools allow to better measure and describe real-life environments, mobility, physical activity, and physiological responses. Increased specificity in lifestyle interventions opens new avenues for remote patient monitoring and intervention.
OP007. PLGF in combination with other commonly utilised tests and other biomarkers for predicting need for delivery for pre-eclampsia within 14days in women presenting prior to 35weeks' gestation. - Pregnancy hypertension
Current means of assessing women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia using BP and proteinuria are of limited use in predicting need for imminent delivery.We undertook a prospective multicentre study to determine diagnostic accuracy of PlGF <5th centile (Triage assay) and other candidate biomarkers in women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia at 20-35weeks' gestation, in determining need for delivery for pre-eclampsia within 14days. We calculated ROC curves for predictive potential and undertook principal factor analysis to determine additional predictive ability for biomarker combinations.In 287 women enrolled prior to 35weeks, ROC area (0.88, SE 0.03) for PlGF <5th centile for pre-eclampsia requiring delivery within 14days was greater than all other commonly utilised tests (systolic and diastolic BP, urate, ALT), either singly (range 0.58-0.68), or in combination (0.69) (p<0.001 for all comparisons), and was greater than that of all other biomarkers; addition of 2 other biomarker panels (either procalcitonin, nephrin and BNP; or cystatin and PAPP-A) increased ROC area to 0.90 but these biomarkers had limited predictive ability on their own.In women presenting prior to 35weeks' gestation with suspected pre-eclampsia, low PlGF has a greater ROC area than other commonly utilised tests. Additional biomarkers add only a small increment to the predictive value of a single PlGF measurement.Copyright Â© 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children. - Paediatric anaesthesia
Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions.Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 mlÂ·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45Â° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed.Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 Â± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 Â± 116, 218 Â± 112, and 347 Â± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 Â± 2.8 mlÂ·kg(-1).Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading.Â© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Resting state activity in patients with disorders of consciousness. - Functional neurology
Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.e., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.e., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients. Improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are needed before fMRI resting state data can be used as proper biomarkers in severe brain injury. However, we anticipate that such developments will boost clinical resting state fMRI studies, allowing for easy and fast acquisitions and ultimately improve the diagnosis and prognosis in the absence of DOC patients' active collaboration in data acquisition.
Combined paravertebral plexus block and parasacral sciatic block in healthy dogs. - Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia
To evaluate the effectiveness of paravertebral lumbar plexus block combined with parasacral sciatic block to anesthetize one hind limb in awake dogs.Randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study.Eight healthy mongrel dogs weighing 12.4 Â± 4.5 kg and aged 7 Â± 2.33 years.After sedation with medetomidine, dogs received B1: bupivacaine 0.25%, 0.2 mL kg(-1), B2: bupivacaine 0.5%, 0.2 mL kg(-1) , B3: bupivacaine 0.25% 0.4 mL kg(-1), P1: NaCl 0.2 mL kg(-1), P2: NaCl 0.4 mL kg(-1) . The lumbosacral plexus was blocked through a paravertebral block of the fourth, fifth and sixth lumbar nerves combined with a parasacral block. The relevant nerves were located using a nerve stimulator and injections of each treatment were administered. Degree and durations of sensory blockade were determined through the response to a Halsted clamp pressure on the skin innervated by the saphenous/femoral and lateral cutaneous femoral nerves (lumbar dermatomes) and by the peroneal and tibial nerves. The degree and duration of motor blockade was assessed evaluating the ability to walk normally and proprioception.P1 and P2 treatments did not show any grade of sensory or motor blockade. The B2 treatment produced a higher degree of sensory blockade compared to B1 and B3 for both lumbar and sciatic dermatomes. There was no significant difference in the degree of sensory blockade comparing B1 to B3. The B2 treatment had greater motor blockade compared to B1 and B3. The duration of sensory and motor blockade was longer in B2 compared to B1 and B3.When the nerve stimulator is used to perform the lumbosacral plexus block, the concentration of the bupivacaine has a more important role than the volume to produce a more solid and longer block.Â© 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia Â© 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Continuous positive airway pressure administered via face mask in tranquilized dogs. - Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001)
To evaluate the tolerance of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask in tranquilized dogs and compare PaOâ‚‚ in arterial blood in dogs receiving oxygen with a regular face mask or CPAP mask set to maintain a pressure of 2.5 or 5 cm Hâ‚‚O.Prospective, randomized clinical study.University teaching hospital.Sixteen client-owned dogs without evidence of cardiopulmonary disease were studied.Eight animals were randomly assigned to each of 2 treatment groups: group A received 2.5 cm Hâ‚‚O CPAP and group B received 5 cm Hâ‚‚O CPAP after first receiving oxygen (5 L/min) by a regular face mask. Animals were tranquilized with acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg, i.v. and morphine 0.2 mg/kg, i.m.. An arterial catheter was then placed to facilitate blood sampling for pHa, PaOâ‚‚, and PaCOâ‚‚ determinations before and after treatments. Direct mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were also recorded after each treatment.CPAP administration was well tolerated by all animals. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, PaCOâ‚‚, and pHa, did not differ at any time point between groups. Differences were seen in oxygenation; in group A, PaOâ‚‚ significantly increased from a mean of 288.3 Â± 47.5 mm Hg with a standard mask to a mean of 390.3 Â± 65.5 mm Hg with the CPAP mask and in group B, PaOâ‚‚ increased similarly from 325.0 Â± 70.5 to 425.2 Â± 63.4 mm Hg (P<0.05); no differences were detected between the 2 CPAP treatments.In healthy tranquilized dogs noninvasive CPAP is well tolerated and increases PaOâ‚‚ above values obtained when using a regular face mask.Â© Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2010.
[Inhalotherapy in bronchial asthma]. - Revista alergia Mexico (Tecamachalco, Puebla, Mexico : 1993)
Inhaled therapy has been used for over 200 years in asthma treatment. It is, to this day, considered to be the most effective and preferred therapy for asthma patients. Aerosols have therapeutic effect on the airway when the particle size (measured in mass median aerodynamic diameter MMAD) is between 1 and 5 microns. Jet and ultrasonic nebulizers are still the favorite means of administration for they have proven themselves very effective. The metered dose (MDI) and dry powder (DPI) inhalers are also frequently used in the treatment of asthma. They have been proven effective with no disadvantages when compared with nebulization. The most commonly used inhaled drugs include B2 agonists and steroids. There is no significant difference in asthma treatment when the different methods of administration are compared, however, the inhalation technique, especially with MDI with and without spacer and DPI, is directly related to the effectiveness of the drug.
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