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Future challenges for intervention research in health and lifestyle research-A systematic meta-literature review. - International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being
The overall aim of this systematic meta-literature review was to (1) summarize the findings of review studies focusing on health determinants, (2) give an overview of intervention studies that have been used to facilitate health and lifestyle, and (3) provide recommendations for future studies in health promotion. A literature review, using a meta-method, was conducted to identify health and lifestyle research based on research articles related to health changes. The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those, 11 studies focused on health determinants, whereas 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. Results from this meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) To increase the likelihood of capturing different biopsychosocial aspects of health, researchers from different scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the study. (2) It is recommended to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants in longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design. (3) Studies should involve behavioral interventions. (4) Design face-to-face intervention studies where the participant can interact with other persons.
Fast assessment of long axis strain with standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a validation study of a novel parameter with reference values. - Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Assessment of longitudinal function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is limited to measurement of systolic excursion of the mitral annulus (MAPSE) or elaborate strain imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to develop a fast assessable parameter for the measurement of long axis strain (LAS) with CMR.40 healthy volunteers and 125 patients with different forms of cardiomyopathy were retrospectively analyzed. Four different approaches for the assessment of LAS with CMR measuring the distance between the LV apex and a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets in enddiastole and endsystole were evaluated. Values for LAS were calculated according to the strain formula.LAS derived from the distance of the epicardial apical border to the midpoint of the line connecting the mitral valve insertion points (LAS-epi/mid) proved to be the most reliable parameter for the assessment of LAS among the different approaches. LAS-epi/mid displayed the highest sensitivity (81.6Â %) and specificity (97.5Â %), furthermore showing the best correlation with feature tracking (FTI) derived transmural longitudinal strain (râ€‰=â€‰0.85). Moreover, LAS-epi/mid was non-inferior to FTI in discriminating controls from patients (Area under the curve (AUC)â€‰=â€‰0.95 vs. 0.94, pâ€‰=â€‰NS). The time required for analysis of LAS-epi/mid was significantly shorter than for FTI (67â€‰Â±â€‰8Â s vs. 180â€‰Â±â€‰14Â s, pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001). Additionally, LAS-epi/mid performed significantly better than MAPSE (Delta AUCâ€‰=â€‰0.09; pâ€‰<â€‰0.005) and the ejection fraction (Delta AUCâ€‰=â€‰0.11; pâ€‰=â€‰0.0002). Reference values were derived from 234 selected healthy volunteers. Mean value for LAS-epi/mid was -17.1â€‰Â±â€‰2.3Â %. Mean values for men were significantly lower compared to women (-16.5â€‰Â±â€‰2.2 vs. -17.9â€‰Â±â€‰2.1Â %; pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001), while LAS decreased with age.LAS-epi/mid is a novel and fast assessable parameter for the analysis of global longitudinal function with non-inferiority compared to transmural longitudinal strain.
The Scarf Osteotomy with Minimally Invasive Lateral Release for Treatment of Hallux Valgus Deformity: Intermediate and Long-Term Results. - The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
Little is known about the long-term results of surgical correction of hallux valgus deformity, in particular, the recurrence rate and factors leading to recurrence.Of one hundred and eight patients (115 feet) who underwent a Scarf osteotomy, ninety-three patients (ninety-three feet) were examined at an average duration of follow-up of 124 months. Clinical examination before surgery and at the time of final follow-up included an evaluation of range of motion, pain as measured with a visual analog scale, and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) was also assessed postoperatively. Radiographic data were evaluated preoperatively, at six weeks postoperatively, and at the time of final follow-up. Additional radiographic data were available for seventy-nine patients of the same patient cohort at an average of twenty-seven months postoperatively.The median overall AOFAS score improved from 57 points preoperatively to 95 points at the time of final follow-up. All radiographic measurements (hallux valgus angle [HVA], intermetatarsal angle [IMA], distal metatarsal articular angle [DMAA], and sesamoid bone position) showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement at the time of final follow-up compared with preoperatively. The rate of recurrence (an HVA of â‰¥20Â°) at the time of final follow-up was 30%. We were unable to determine if recurrence resulted in functional impairment or consequences for quality of life.The recurrence rate after ten years was 30%, and a higher final HVA resulted in higher pain levels. The limitations imposed by nonvalidated outcome measures precluded conclusions about the influence of HVA on function or quality of life.Copyright Â© 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection induces AD-like neurodegeneration markers in human neuroblastoma cells. - Neurobiology of aging
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses that establish lifelong latent infections in neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that HSV-1 infection is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relationships between other herpesvirus infections and events associated with neurodegeneration have not, however, been extensively studied. The present work reports that HSV-2 infection leads to the strong accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the amyloid-Î² peptides AÎ²40 and AÎ²42 (all major pathological hallmarks of AD) in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Infection is also associated with a marked reduction in the amount of AÎ²40 secreted and in the proteolytic fragments of the amyloid-Î² precursor protein (APP) (secreted APPÎ± and the Î±-C-terminal fragment). These results indicate that HSV-2 infection inhibits the nonamyloidogenic pathway of APP processing and impairs AÎ² secretion in these cells. In addition, HSV-2 induces the accumulation of intracellular autophagic compartments containing AÎ² due to a failure in the late stages of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that HSV-2 infection strongly alters the tau phosphorylation state, APP processing, and autophagic process in human neuroblastoma cells, leading to the appearance of AD-like neurodegeneration markers.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of different types of cardiac amyloidosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. - Amyloid : the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation : the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
We sought to determine cardiac morphological and functional differences between light-chain (AL), mutant-type transthyretin (ATTRmt) and wild-type TTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis using contrast-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CE-CMR). Finally, we attempted to establish the diagnostic and prognostic impact of these findings.The most common forms of cardiac amyloid are AL and ATTR amyloidosis, but the clinical courses of these variants are quite heterogeneous. While CE-CMR is used to evaluate patients with cardiac amyloidosis, its ability to predict prognosis in these patients is debatable.About 130 patients with cardiac amyloidosis (AL, nâ€‰=â€‰62; ATTRmt, nâ€‰=â€‰30, ATTRwt, nâ€‰=â€‰33) were assessed by CE-CMR (cardiac morphology, cardiac function, late gadolinium enhancement).Left ventricular (LV) mass, basal and mid-ventricular maximal wall thickness, and thickness of the inter-atrial septum were higher in ATTRwt when compared to AL and ATTRmt amyloidosis. Tricuspid annular excursion was lower in ATTRwt amyloidosis than in AL amyloidosis. CE was observed in 94.6% of the patients (AL 80.6%; ATTRmt 90%; ATTRwt 87.9%) with significant differences in quality and intensity between the groups. Differentiation of amyloid types was achieved by combination of age, number of organs, the presence of inferolateral CE-CMR, thickness of inter-atrial septum and troponin T. Overall 1-year-survival rates were 93.3, 93.9 and 70.5% in ATTRwt, ATTRmt and AL amyloidosis, respectively. LV mass, mitral annular excursion and NT-proBNP in AL amyloidosis, LV mass maximal apical wall thickness and troponin T in ATTRwt amyloidosis, and finally NT-proBNP and renal function in ATTRmt amyloidosis were independent predictors of outcome.This study demonstrates that CE-CMR can highlight morphological and functional differences between different types of cardiac amyloidosis. In addition, CE-CMR and cardiac biomarkers provide useful prognostic information in patients with cardiac amyloidosis.
Imaging of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction-Comparison of high-resolution ultrasound and 3T MRI. - European journal of radiology
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired asymmetric flatfoot deformity. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the diagnostic value of MRI and high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), and assess their correlation with intraoperative findings.We reviewed 23 posterior tibial tendons in 23 patients with clinical findings of PTTD (13 females, 10 males; mean age, 50 years) with 18MHz HR-US and 3T MRI. Surgical intervention was performed in nine patients.HR-US findings included 2 complete tears, 6 partial tears, 10 tendons with tendinosis, and 5 unremarkable tendons. MRI demonstrated 2 complete tears, 7 partial tears, 10 tendons with tendinosis, and 4 unremarkable tendons. HR-US and MRI were concordant in 20/23 cases (87%). Image findings for HR-US were confirmed in six of nine patients (66.7%) by intraoperative inspection, whereas imaging findings for MRI were concordant with five of nine cases (55.6%).Our results indicate that HR-US can be considered slightly more accurate than MRI in the detection of PTTD.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Why bother with testing? The validity of immigrants' self-assessed language proficiency. - Social science research
Due to its central role in social integration, immigrants' language proficiency is a matter of considerable societal concern and scientific interest. This study examines whether commonly applied self-assessments of linguistic skills yield results that are similar to those of competence tests and thus whether these self-assessments are valid measures of language proficiency. Analyses of data for immigrant youth reveal moderate correlations between language test scores and two types of self-assessments (general ability estimates and concrete performance estimates) for the participants' first and second languages. More importantly, multiple regression models using self-assessments and models using test scores yield different results. This finding holds true for a variety of analyses and for both types of self-assessments. Our findings further suggest that self-assessed language skills are systematically biased in certain groups. Subjective measures thus seem to be inadequate estimates of language skills, and future research should use them with caution when research questions pertain to actual language skills rather than self-perceptions.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Extracellular remodeling in patients with wild-type amyloidosis consuming epigallocatechin-3-gallate: preliminary results of T1 mapping by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a small single center study. - Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society
T1 mapping by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is able to determine the extracellular volume fraction. Wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (WT-ATTR) is characterized by extracellular amyloid deposition in the heart. Recent reports indicated a reduction of left ventricular (LV) myocardial mass in WT-ATTR after consumption of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the main catechin in green tea. It remained unclear, whether reduction of LV myocardial mass reflects decrease of amyloid load or progressive atrophy of cardiomyocytes.This study included 7 male patients with CMR repetitively performed before and 12 months after daily consumption of green tea extract (600 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate). Short axis slices as well as 2-, 3-, and 4-chamber views were acquired using SSFP sequences. T1 mapping was created out of 11 mid-ventricular short axis views with increasing inversion times using a single breath-hold modified look-locker inversion recovery sequence before and 15 min after Gadolinium contrast administration.After 12 months, a significant decrease of LV myocardial mass [198 (160; 212) vs. 180 (142; 204) g; p < 0.05] was observed. Moreover, a significant decrease of native [T1 1110 (1072; 1150) ms vs. 1080 (970; 1101), p < 0.05 or p = 0.03] was noticed. The calculated extracellular volume decreased in 5 patients (62.5%) by 7% and increased in 2 patients (37.5%) by 9.5%, in trend resulting in a (not significant) decrease of median ECV by 2.4%. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [57 (48; 65) vs. 55 (47; 64) %; p = 0.3] remained unchanged.This study provided further evidence of LV myocardial mass reduction in patients with WT-ATTR daily consuming green tea extract. Additionally, this study gave first insights into the histomorphological correlate of LV mass reduction using T1 mapping. LV mass reduction appeared to be rather due to a decrease of amyloid load than atrophy of cardiomyocytes.
Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language. - Social neuroscience
Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in NÂ =Â 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14Â months, imperative and declarative point production at 15Â months and epistemic language at 48Â months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14Â months and declarative pointing at 15Â months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48Â months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.
Cardiac findings and events observed in an open-label clinical trial of tafamidis in patients with non-Val30Met and non-Val122Ile hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. - Journal of cardiovascular translational research
A phase 2, open-label study in 21 patients with non-Val30Met and non-Val122Ile hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis showed that tafamidis (20 mg daily for 12 months) stabilized these transthyretin variants. We assessed cardiac amyloid infiltration and cardiac abnormalities in this same study population. At baseline, median age was 64.3 years, 11 patients were in NYHA class II, 13 had conduction abnormalities, 14 N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide concentrations >300 pg/ml, and 17 interventricular septal thickness >12 mm. Mean (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction was 60.3% (9.96). Patients with normal heart rate variability increased from 4/19 at baseline to 8/19 at month 12 (p < 0.05). Cardiac biomarkers remained stable. Although four patients had increases in interventricular septal thickness â‰¥ 2 mm, the remainder had stable septal wall thickness. There were no clinically relevant changes in mean echocardiographic/electrocardiographic variables and no safety concerns.
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