14820 Physicians Ln 242
Rockville MD 20850
Medical School: University Of Virginia School Of Medicine - 1997
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: No
License #: D57345
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Dr. Lisa Sullivan is associated with these group practices
Medical Malpractice Cases
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Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Sullivan has made to other doctors
Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. - JAMA
Evidence is conflicting regarding the performance of apolipoproteins vs traditional lipids for predicting coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.To compare performance of different lipid measures for CHD prediction using discrimination and calibration characteristics and reclassification of risk categories; to assess incremental utility of apolipoproteins over traditional lipids for CHD prediction.Population-based, prospective cohort from, Framingham, Massachusetts. We evaluated serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo B, and 3 lipid ratios (total cholesterol:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and apo B:apo A-I) in 3322 middle-aged white participants who attended the fourth offspring examination cycle (1987-1991) and were without cardiovascular disease. Fifty-three percent of the participants were women.Incidence of first CHD event (recognized or unrecognized myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, coronary insufficiency, or coronary heart disease death).After a median follow-up of 15.0 years, 291 participants, 198 of whom were men, developed CHD. In multivariate models adjusting for nonlipid risk factors, the apo B:apo A-I ratio predicted CHD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increment, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.58 in men and HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.67 in women), but risk ratios were similar for total cholesterol:HDL-C (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22-1.58 in men and HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17-1.66 in women) and for LDL-C:HDL-C (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54 in men and HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.14-1.63 in women). In both sexes, models using the apo B:apo A-I ratio demonstrated performance characteristics comparable with but not better than that for other lipid ratios. The apo B:apo A-I ratio did not predict CHD risk in a model containing all components of the Framingham risk score including total cholesterol:HDL-C (P = .12 in men; P = .58 in women).In this large, population-based cohort, the overall performance of apo B:apo A-I ratio for prediction of CHD was comparable with that of traditional lipid ratios but did not offer incremental utility over total cholesterol:HDL-C. These data do not support measurement of apo B or apo A-I in clinical practice when total cholesterol and HDL-C measurements are available.
The effect of low body mass index on the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. - The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
To evaluate the relationship between low maternal body mass index (BMI) as calculated in the first trimester and the risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.Patients enrolled in the First And Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk for aneuploidy (FASTER) trial were grouped into three weight categories: low BMI (BMI <19.8 kg/m2), normal BMI (BMI 19.8 - 26 kg/m2), and overweight BMI (26.1 - 29 kg/m2). The incidences of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were ascertained for each group. Tests for differences in crude incidence proportions were performed using Chi-square tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for maternal age, race, parity, obesity, use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), in vitro fertilization (IVF), gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, cocaine use, and smoking.The proportion of patients having gestational hypertension in the low BMI group was 2.0% compared to 3.2% for normal BMI and 6.0% for overweight BMI (p < 0.0001). Women with low BMI were also less likely to develop preeclampsia, 1.1% vs. 1.9% for normal BMI and 2.8% for overweight BMI (p < 0.0001).We found that women with low BMI in the first trimester were significantly less likely to develop gestational hypertension or preeclampsia than women with a normal BMI.
Impact of insulin resistance on risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with metabolic syndrome. - Diabetes care
Metabolic syndrome increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may be associated with insulin resistance.We tested the hypothesis that the metabolic syndrome confers risk with or without concomitant insulin resistance among 2,803 Framingham Offspring Study subjects followed up to 11 years for new diabetes (135 cases) or CVD (240 cases). We classified subjects by presence of metabolic syndrome (using the National Cholesterol Education Program's [NCEPs] Third Adult Treatment Panel [ATP III], International Diabetes Federation [IDF], or European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance [EGIR] criteria) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance > or = 75th percentile) and used separate risk factor-adjusted proportional hazards models to estimate relative risks (RRs) for diabetes or CVD using as referents those without insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, or without both.Fifty-six percent of individuals with ATP III, 52% with IDF, and 100% with EGIR definitions of metabolic syndrome had insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increased risk for diabetes (RR 2.6 [95% CI 1.7-4.0]) and CVD (1.8 [1.4-2.3]) as did metabolic syndrome for diabetes (ATP III, 3.5 [2.2-5.6]; IDF, 4.6 [2.7-7.7]; and EGIR, 3.3 [2.1-5.1]) and CVD (ATP III, 1.8 [1.4-2.3]; IDF, 1.7 [1.3-2.3]; and EGIR, 2.1 [1.6-2.7]). Relative to those without either metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance increased risk for diabetes (ATP III, 6.0 [3.3-10.8] and IDF, 6.9 [3.7-13.0]) and CVD (ATP III, 2.3 [1.7-3.1] and IDF, 2.2 [1.6-3.0]). Any instance of metabolic syndrome without insulin resistance increased risk for diabetes approximately threefold (P < 0.001); IDF metabolic syndrome without insulin resistance (RR 1.6, P = 0.01), but not ATP III metabolic syndrome without insulin resistance (RR 1.3, P = 0.2), increased risk for CVD.Metabolic syndrome increased risk for diabetes regardless of insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome by ATP III criteria may require insulin resistance to increase risk for CVD. The simultaneous presence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance identifies an especially high-risk individual.
Left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and lowered cognitive performance in the Framingham offspring. - Hypertension
The purpose of this study was to determine whether echocardiographic left ventricular mass is related to cognitive performance beyond casual blood pressure adjusting for the influence of other vascular risk factors. We used multivariable regression analyses to relate left ventricular mass assessed at a routine examination (1995-1998) to measures of cognitive ability obtained routinely (1998-2001) in 1673 Framingham Offspring Study participants (56% women; mean age: 57 years) free from stroke, transient ischemic attack, and dementia. We adjusted for the following covariates hierarchically: (1) age, education, sex, body weight, height, interval between left ventricular mass measurement and neuropsychological testing (basic model); (2) basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension; and (3) basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension+vascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease. For the basic model, left ventricular mass was inversely associated with abstract reasoning (similarities), visual-spatial memory and organization, and verbal memory. For the basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension, left ventricular mass was inversely associated with similarities and visual-spatial memory and organization. For the basic+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension+risk factors+cardiovascular disease model, no significant associations were observed. Echocardiographic left ventricular mass is associated with cognitive performance beyond casual and time-averaged systolic blood pressure, but this association is attenuated and rendered nonsignificant with additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, thus suggesting that these variables play an important role in mediating the association between left ventricular mass and cognition.
How do treatment repeaters use the drug treatment system? An analysis of injection drug users in Massachusetts. - Journal of substance abuse treatment
This study explored common drug treatment utilization patterns in the first four types of treatments entered by injection drug users (IDUs) with multiple admissions. A Massachusetts longitudinal database with all entries to all licensed drug treatment programs was used. Treatment repeaters' admission patterns varied considerably. For the years 1997-2001, there were 2,500-3,000 IDUs new to the system each year who became treatment repeaters and who had more than 250 utilization patterns. Only approximately half of these repeaters followed the 10 most common utilization patterns. The most common pattern (for 30% of the population each year) was only entering detoxification two to four times; the only other common pattern (involving 4-8% of the population) was having entered methadone maintenance twice or having entered detoxification then methadone maintenance. Studies are needed to identify the extent to which the absence of a systematic pattern is caused by client, payment, or treatment setting and systems issues. A key implication is the need to develop policies that provide support for states to develop continuum-of-care models for their drug treatment systems.
Labor induction in women with an unfavorable Bishop score: randomized controlled trial of intrauterine Foley catheter with concurrent oxytocin infusion versus Foley catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion with concurrent oxytocin infusion. - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
This study was undertaken to determine whether the addition of extra-amniotic saline infusion improves the efficacy of the Foley catheter in women undergoing cervical ripening and induction of labor with an unfavorable cervical examination.One hundred consenting women with a Bishop score less than 5 with singleton gestation, intact membranes, vertex presentation, who required induction of labor were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Foley alone (Foley, n=49) or to the Foley catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI, 30 mL of NS per hour infused through the distal port of the Foley, n=51). All women received concurrent dilute oxytocin infusion per protocol. The primary analysis was intent to treat. Nonparametric tests were used as indicated.At randomization, the groups were well balanced for potential confounders including: parity, gestational age, prior cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, mean dilation, effacement, and Bishop score. There were no differences between the groups for time to delivery (Foley 17.7 +/- 10.5 hours vs EASI 17.4 +/- 11.7 hours, P=.9), the proportion of women delivered before 24 hours (Foley 41/49 [84%] vs EASI 39/51 [77%], P=.37) or cesarean rates (Foley 9/49 [17.7%] vs EASI 9/51 [18.4%], P=.92). There were also no differences in complications, including chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and neonatal morbidity.EASI does not increase the efficacy of cervical ripening and induction of labor with a Foley catheter and concurrent oxytocin infusion.
C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. - Circulation
Inflammation (assessed by C-reactive protein [CRP]) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but population-based data are limited.We assessed the cross-sectional relations of CRP to the MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 3037 subjects (1681 women; mean age, 54 years) and the utility of CRP and the MetS to predict new CVD events (n=189) over 7 years. MetS (> or =3 of 5 traits) was present in 24% of subjects; mean age-adjusted CRP levels for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 MetS traits were 2.2, 3.5, 4.2, 6.0, or 6.6 mg/L, respectively (P trend <0.0001). In persons with MetS, age-adjusted CRP levels were higher in women than men (7.8 versus 4.6 mg/L; P<0.0001). MetS and baseline CRP were individually related to CVD events (for MetS: age-sex-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.8; for highest versus lowest CRP quartile: HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.5). Greater risk of CVD persisted for MetS and CRP even after adjustment in a model including age, sex, MetS (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.5), and CRP (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9). The c-statistic associated with the age- and sex-adjusted model including CRP was 0.72; including MetS, 0.74; and including CRP and MetS, 0.74.Elevated CRP levels are related to insulin resistance and the presence of the MetS, especially in women. Although discrimination of subjects at risk of CVD events using both MetS and CRP is not better than using either phenotype alone, both CRP and MetS are independent predictors of new CVD events.
Circulating cell-free fetal nucleic acid analysis may be a novel marker of fetomaternal hemorrhage after elective first-trimester termination of pregnancy. - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (fDNA) and RNA in maternal plasma could be useful in the diagnosis and management of complications of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss our studies to investigate the potential of fetal nucleic acid measurement in maternal plasma as a marker of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) after elective first-trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP). Using quantitative real-time PCR amplification of the DYS1 sequence, elevation of plasma fDNA levels after TOP was observed, especially in the late first trimester. This corresponds with the functional development of the placental vascular structure and fetal hematopoiesis. This Y sequence-based PCR amplification assay, however, limits the analysis to pregnant women carrying male fetuses. Therefore, we also developed a real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay of the gamma-globin transcript as a marker of fetal erythroid cells. Although plasma gamma-globin mRNA levels were decreased after TOP in many patients, an elevation was observed in some patients at greater than 9 weeks' gestation, which is consistent with the increase in plasma fDNA levels. Our data suggest that fetal hematopoietic cells contribute to the pool of fetal nucleic acids in the maternal circulation. Measurement of cell-free fetal nucleic acid levels in maternal plasma may have clinical application as a novel marker of FMH after 9 weeks of gestation.
Does job strain increase the risk for coronary heart disease or death in men and women? The Framingham Offspring Study. - American journal of epidemiology
Conflicting findings in the literature have made the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) controversial. The effect of high job strain on the 10-year incidence of CHD and total mortality was examined in men and women participating in the Framingham Offspring Study; 3,039 participants, 1,711 men and 1,328 women, aged 18-77 years, were examined between 1984 and 1987 and followed for 10 years. Measures of job strain, occupational characteristics, and risk factors for CHD were collected at the baseline examination. Before and after controlling for systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and the total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in Cox proportional hazards models, the authors found that high job strain was not associated with mortality or incident CHD in either men or women over the follow-up period. Contrary to expectation, women with active job strain (high demands-high control) had a 2.8-fold increased risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 7.2) compared with women with high job strain (high demands-low control). For men, higher education, personal income, and occupational prestige were related to decreased risk of total mortality and CHD. These findings do not support high job strain as a significant risk factor for CHD or death in men or women.
Concept and usefulness of cardiovascular risk profiles. - American heart journal
Despite major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past century, it remains a serious clinical and public health problem. Multivariable risk factor analysis is now commonly performed to identify high-risk candidates for CVD who need preventive measures and to seek out clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. The set of risk factors used for the former is constrained by practical considerations, and the set of risk factors used for the latter is constrained by the hypothesis being tested. This report reviews the evolution and usefulness of multivariable risk functions crafted for estimating risk of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis and for gaining insights into their pathogenesis. Decades of evaluation of CVD risk factors by the Framingham Study led to the conclusion that CVD risk evaluation is most fruitfully appraised from the multivariable risk posed by a set of established risk factors. Such assessment is essential because risk factors seldom occur in isolation, and the risk associated with each varies widely depending on the burden of associated risk factors. About half the CVD in the general population arises from the segment with multiple marginal risk factor abnormalities. Although disease-specific profiles are available, a multivariable risk formulation for coronary disease comprised of age, sex, the total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, systolic blood pressure, glucose intolerance, cigarette smoking, and electrocardiography-left ventricular hypertrophy is also predictive of peripheral artery disease, heart failure, and stroke because of shared risk factors. Correcting risk factors for any particular CVD has the potential to protect against > or =1 of the others. Multivariable risk stratification is now recognized as essential in efficiently identifying likely candidates for CVD and quantifying the hazard.
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