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Topological surface states interacting with bulk excitations in the Kondo insulator SmB6 revealed via planar tunneling spectroscopy. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a well-known Kondo insulator in which the insulating bulk arises from strong electron correlations, has recently attracted great attention owing to increasing evidence for its topological nature, thereby harboring protected surface states. However, corroborative spectroscopic evidence is still lacking, unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts, including Bi2Se3 Here, we report results from planar tunneling that unveil the detailed spectroscopic properties of SmB6 The tunneling conductance obtained on the (001) and (011) single crystal surfaces reveals linear density of states as expected for two and one Dirac cone(s), respectively. Quite remarkably, it is found that these topological states are not protected completely within the bulk hybridization gap. A phenomenological model of the tunneling process invoking interaction of the surface states with bulk excitations (spin excitons), as predicted by a recent theory, provides a consistent explanation for all of the observed features. Our spectroscopic study supports and explains the proposed picture of the incompletely protected surface states in this topological Kondo insulator SmB6.
Disseminated cutaneous Curvularia infection in an immunocompromised host; diagnostic challenges and experience with voriconazole. - Journal of cutaneous pathology
An increasing spectrum and number of opportunistic fungal pathogens have been reported to cause disease in humans over the past decade. Disseminated phaeohyphomycoses caused by rare dematiaceous molds in immunocompromised patients have a high mortality rate and are increasingly reported in the literature. Early diagnosis of disseminated phaehyphomycosis is critical especially in neutropenic patients but can be hindered by the low sensitivity of fungal blood cultures and low clinical suspicion. Cutaneous manifestations are often the earliest sign of disease and conducting a thorough skin exam in febrile neutropenic patients can lead to more rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment. PCR amplification and sequencing of mold RNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue can be useful for diagnosing rare fungal infections when negative fungal cultures preclude morphologic diagnosis. Effective treatment for disseminated phaehyphomycosis is lacking and there is a need to report experiences with the use of newer antifungals.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zoon's balanitis. - Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
Zoon's balanitis, is typically found in older, uncircumcised males and can be asymptomatic, pruritic, or cause dysuria. The typical appearance is erythematous, discrete, moist plaques with a "cayenne pepper" speckled appearance and an orange hue on the glans penis and sometimes prepuce, which may display "kissing lesions" on areas that are in direct contact with the lesions.These may eventually erode and leave a "rusty stain". Histologically, these have a dense lichenoid infiltrate in the upper and mid dermis with abundant plasma cells.
Theory of point contact spectroscopy in correlated materials. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
We developed a microscopic theory for the point-contact conductance between a metallic electrode and a strongly correlated material using the nonequilibrium Schwinger-Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism. We explicitly show that, in the classical limit, contact size shorter than the scattering length of the system, the microscopic model can be reduced to an effective model with transfer matrix elements that conserve in-plane momentum. We found that the conductance dI/dV is proportional to the effective density of states, that is, the integrated single-particle spectral function A(Ï‰ = eV) over the whole Brillouin zone. From this conclusion, we are able to establish the conditions under which a non-Fermi liquid metal exhibits a zero-bias peak in the conductance. This finding is discussed in the context of recent point-contact spectroscopy on the iron pnictides and chalcogenides, which has exhibited a zero-bias conductance peak.
Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride in diabetic nephropathy (PIONEER-CSG-17): lessons learned from a pilot study. - Nephron
Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride (Pyridorinâ„¢) blocks pathogenic oxidative pathways in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The pyridoxamine pilot study was designed to test entry criteria and outcomes. Subjects had SCr 1.3-3.5 mg/dl, protein-to-creatinine â‰¥1,200 mg/g and used a surrogate outcome of Î”SCr over 52 weeks. Subjects had to be on a maximally tolerated dose of ACE/ARB for 3 months; stable other antihypertensive doses for 2 months; stable diuretic dose for 2 weeks, and BP â‰¤160/90 mm Hg; or enter a Pharmaco-Stabilization Phase (PSP). This pilot failed to detect an effect on Î”SCr in intent-to-treat analysis.We queried the locked clinical trial database for subgroups in which there was a treatment effect.Subjects not requiring PSP and those with entry SCr <2.0 mg/dl had a treatment effect. Subjects entering PSP required more changes in antihypertensive medications and experienced larger Î”SCr over 52 weeks. PSP subjects with BP >140/90 mm Hg had no treatment effect, but those â‰¤140/90 mm Hg did.Time required for acute effects of ACE/ARB to stabilize is unknown, but these data suggest >3 months. Thus, subjects in the pivotal trial must be on ACE/ARB for 6 months. Frequent antihypertensive adjustment could engender SCr changes unrelated to CKD progression. Thus, we will require subjects to have BP â‰¤150/90 mm Hg and on stable antihypertensives for 26 weeks, or â‰¤140/90 mm Hg and on stable antihypertensives for 13 weeks. Since Î”SCr over 52 weeks is limited as a surrogate outcome, the pivotal trial uses a time-to-event analysis of baseline SCr to at least a 50% increase in SCr or ESRD as the primary outcome. This substantial Î”SCr is protected from noise and is clinically relevant. The pyridoxamine pilot provided critical information to inform the design of PIONEER-CSG-17, which we conducted under the SPA agreement with FDA.
Associations among exercise duration, lameness severity, and hip joint range of motion in Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia. - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
To evaluate factors associated with lameness severity and hip joint range of motion in dogs with hip dysplasia and to assess the association between hip joint range of motion and degree of lameness.Prospective case series.60 client-owned Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia.Owners completed a questionnaire regarding their dogs' daily exercise duration and type (i.e., low impact vs high impact) and lifestyle. Range of motion of affected hip joints was measured with a transparent plastic goniometer. The presence of subluxation or luxation of hip joints as a consequence of hip dysplasia and the size of the largest osteophytes or enthesophytes of hip joints on ventrodorsal radiographic images of the pelvis were recorded. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with lameness, loss of hip joint flexion, and loss of hip joint extension and to identify factors associated with the presence of large osteophytes.Exercise was associated with a decrease in the severity of lameness in dogs with hip dysplasia. The strength of this inverse relationship increased with longer exercise duration. Lameness was more severe in dogs with hip joint luxation than in dogs without luxation. Hip joint extension was 1Â° lower for each year of age, and osteophyte or enthesophyte size was 1 mm larger with each 3-year increase in age.Longer daily exercise duration was associated with lower lameness scores in dogs with hip dysplasia. Dogs with hip joint luxation secondary to hip dysplasia had higher lameness scores than did dogs without hip joint luxation.
Colonic ganglioneuromatous polyposis and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the setting of Cowden syndrome: a case report and literature review. - Human pathology
Cowden syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant, multisystem disorder characterized by hamartomatous tissue overgrowth and an increased risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers. Most of the cases arise from germline mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homologue tumor suppressor gene. An association with colon cancer remains unproven but has been suggested in previous reports. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with colonic ganglioneuromatous polyps and an adjacent colonic adenoma giving rise to a signet-ring adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastases in the setting of Cowden syndrome. Although gastrointestinal polyps are a common feature of Cowden syndrome, reports of ganglioneuromatous polyps and malignant degeneration are rare. Cutaneous features of Cowden syndrome in our patient include "cobblestone" lesions of the tongue and oral mucosa, facial trichilemmomas, multiple acral keratoses, and a storiform collagenoma.Copyright Ã‚Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recurrent perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the uterus (PEComa): an immunohistochemical study and review of the literature. - Gynecologic oncology
Neoplasms of the perivascular epithelioid cell, first described in 1992, comprise a family of tumors known as "PEComas." To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of uterine PEComa reported in the literature to behave in a malignant fashion. The purpose of this report is to provide information that may be used to predict the future behavior of this tumor.The patient was a 79-year-old woman with a large uterine mass which recurred 2 years following resection. The patient died within months after resection of the recurrent tumor. Retrospective immunohistochemical staining with newly commercially available antibodies including MART-1 was done on both the original and the recurrent tumor, confirming the diagnosis of uterine PEComa.Uterine PEComas should be regarded as tumors with uncertain malignant potential.
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