2022 State Route 71
Spring Lake NJ 07762
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Major publications in the critical care pharmacotherapy literature: January-December 2014. - American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Nine recently published articles and one guideline with important implications for critical care pharmacy practice are summarized.The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) group includes more than 40 experienced critical care pharmacists across the United States. Group members monitor 29 peer-reviewed journals on an ongoing basis to identify literature relevant to pharmacy practice in the critical care setting. After evaluation by CCPLU group members, selected articles are chosen for summarization and distribution to group members nationwide based on applicability to practice, relevance, and study design and strength. Hundreds of relevant articles were evaluated by the group in 2014, of which 114 were summarized and disseminated to CCPLU group members. From among those 114 publications, 10 deemed to be of particularly high utility to the critical care practitioner were selected for inclusion in this review for their potential to change practice or reinforce current evidence-based practice. One of the selected articles presents updated recommendations on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); the other 9 address topics such as albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis, use of enteral statins for acute respiratory distress syndrome, fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, the use of unfractionated heparin versus bivalirudin for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and early protocol-based care for septic shock.There were many important additions to the critical care pharmacotherapy literature in 2014, including a joint guideline for the management of AF and reports of clinical trials.Copyright Â© 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Dose Ketamine in Chronic Critical Illness. - Journal of intensive care medicine
We report a case series on the observed effects of low-dose ketamine infusions in 4 critically ill patients with varying complications related to prolonged critical illness. Doses of ketamine infusion ranged from 0.5 to 4 Î¼g/kg/min. A low-dose ketamine infusion was used to reduce agitation in a patient requiring high doses of sedatives and analgesics. In a second patient, ketamine improved depression and anxiety symptoms. In a third patient, ketamine may have facilitated liberation from mechanical ventilation. In a fourth patient, ketamine was used for palliation to avoid lethargy. Ketamine may be considered to help decrease agitation, manage pain, facilitate opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal, prevent respiratory depression, and potentially manage depression and anxiety in chronically critically ill patients.Â© The Author(s) 2015.
FDA approval summary: crizotinib for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements. - The oncologist
On August 26, 2011, crizotinib received accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is ALK-positive as detected by a test approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Approval was based on two single-arm trials demonstrating objective response rates (ORRs) of 50% and 61% and median response durations of 42 and 48 weeks. On November 20, 2013, crizotinib received regular approval based on confirmation of clinical benefit in study A8081007, a randomized trial in 347 patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC who had previously received one platinum-containing regimen. Patients were assigned (1:1) to receive crizotinib 250 mg orally twice daily or standard of care (docetaxel or pemetrexed). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) determined by independent radiology review; secondary endpoints were ORR and overall survival (OS). PFS was significantly longer in the crizotinib arm, with median PFS of 7.7 and 3.0 months in the crizotinib and chemotherapy arms, respectively, and a 46% absolute increase in ORR but no difference in OS between treatment arms at the interim analysis. The most common adverse drug reactions (>25%) in crizotinib-treated patients were vision disorders, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, edema, elevated transaminases, and fatigue. The most serious toxicities of crizotinib were hepatotoxicity, interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis, and QT-interval prolongation. Crizotinib's rapid clinical development program (6 years from identification of ALK rearrangements in a subset of NSCLC to full FDA approval) is a model of efficient drug development in this new era of molecularly targeted oncology therapy.Â©AlphaMed Press.
Immunization information systems to increase vaccination rates: a community guide systematic review. - Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP
Immunizations are the most effective way to reduce incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunization information systems (IISs) are confidential, population-based, computerized databases that record all vaccination doses administered by participating providers to people residing within a given geopolitical area. They facilitate consolidation of vaccination histories for use by health care providers in determining appropriate client vaccinations. Immunization information systems also provide aggregate data on immunizations for use in monitoring coverage and program operations and to guide public health action.Methods for conducting systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to assess the effectiveness of IISs. Reviewed evidence examined changes in vaccination rates in client populations or described expanded IIS capabilities related to improving vaccinations. The literature search identified 108 published articles and 132 conference abstracts describing or evaluating the use of IISs in different assessment categories.Studies described or evaluated IIS capabilities to (1) create or support effective interventions to increase vaccination rates, such as client reminder and recall, provider assessment and feedback, and provider reminders; (2) determine client vaccination status to inform decisions by clinicians, health care systems, and schools; (3) guide public health responses to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease; (4) inform assessments of vaccination coverage, missed vaccination opportunities, invalid dose administration, and disparities; and (5) facilitate vaccine management and accountability.Findings from 240 articles and abstracts demonstrate IIS capabilities and actions in increasing vaccination rates with the goal of reducing vaccine-preventable disease.
Economic review of immunization information systems to increase vaccination rates: a community guide systematic review. - Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP
A recent systematic review found that use of an immunization information system (IIS) is an effective intervention to increase vaccination rates. The purpose of this review was to evaluate costs and benefits associated with implementing, operating, and participating with an IIS. The speed of technology change has had an effect on costs and benefits of IIS and is considered in this review.An economic evaluation for IIS was conducted using methods developed for Community Guide systematic reviews. The literature search covered the period from January 1994 to March 2012 and identified 12 published articles and 2 government reports.Most studies involving cost data evaluated (1) system costs of building an IIS and (2) cost of exchanging immunization data; most economic benefits focused on administrative efficiency.A major challenge to evaluating a technology-based intervention is the evolution that comes with technology improvements and advancements. Although the cost and benefit data may be less applicable today due to changes in system technology, data exchange methods, availability of vendor support, system functionalities, and scope of IIS, it is likely that more up-to-date estimates and comprehensive estimates of benefits would support the findings of cost savings in this review. More research is needed to update and address limitations in the available evidence and to enable assessment of economic costs and benefits of present-day IIS.
Clinical evaluation of the FreeStyle Precision Pro system. - Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
A new version of international standard (ISO 15197) and CLSI Guideline (POCT12) with more stringent accuracy criteria are near publication. We evaluated the glucose test performance of the FreeStyle Precision Pro system, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) designed to enhance accuracy for point-of-care testing (POCT).Precision, interference and system accuracy with 503 blood samples from capillary, venous and arterial sources were evaluated in a multicenter study. Study results were analyzed and presented in accordance with the specifications and recommendations of the final draft ISO 15197 and the new POCT12.The FreeStyle Precision Pro system demonstrated acceptable precision (CV <5%), no interference across a hematocrit range of 15-65%, and, except for xylose, no interference from 24 of 25 potentially interfering substances. It also met all accuracy criteria specified in the final draft ISO 15197 and POCT12, with 97.3-98.9% of the individual results of various blood sample types agreeing within Â±12 mg/dl of the laboratory analyzer values at glucose concentrations <100mg/dl and within Â±12.5% of the laboratory analyzer values at glucose concentrations â‰¥100 mg/dl.The FreeStyle Precision Pro system met the tighter accuracy requirements, providing a means for enhancing accuracy for point-of-care blood glucose monitoring.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A multi-institutional medical educational collaborative: advocacy training in California pediatric residency programs. - Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Educational collaboratives offer a promising approach to disseminate educational resources and provide faculty development to advance residents' training, especially in areas of novel curricular content; however, their impact has not been clearly described. Advocacy training is a recently mandated requirement of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education that many programs struggle to meet.The authors describe the formation (in 2007) and impact (from 2008 to 2010) of 13 California pediatric residency programs working in an educational collaboration ("the Collaborative") to improve advocacy training. The Collaborative defined an overarching mission, assessed the needs of the programs, and mapped their strengths. The infrastructure required to build the collaboration among programs included a social networking site, frequent conference calls, and face-to-face semiannual meetings. An evaluation of the Collaborative's activities showed that programs demonstrated increased uptake of curricular components and an increase in advocacy activities. The themes extracted from semistructured interviews of lead faculty at each program revealed that the Collaborative (1) reduced faculty isolation, increased motivation, and strengthened faculty academic development, (2) enhanced identification of curricular areas of weakness and provided curricular development from new resources, (3) helped to address barriers of limited resident time and program resources, and (4) sustained the Collaborative's impact even after formal funding of the program had ceased through curricular enhancement, the need for further resources, and a shared desire to expand the collaborative network.
Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects. - Journal of diabetes science and technology
Patients consider multiple parameters in adjusting prandial insulin doses for optimal glycemic control. Difficulties in calculations can lead to incorrect doses or induce patients to administer fixed doses, rely on empirical estimates, or skip boluses.A multicenter study was conducted with 205 diabetes subjects who were on multiple daily injections of rapid/ short-acting insulin. Using the formula provided, the subjects manually calculated two prandial insulin doses based on one high and one normal glucose test result, respectively. They also determined the two doses using the FreeStyle InsuLinx Blood Glucose Monitoring System, which has a built-in, automated bolus calculator. After dose determinations, the subjects completed opinion surveys.Of the 409 insulin doses manually calculated by the subjects, 256 (63%) were incorrect. Only 23 (6%) of the same 409 dose determinations were incorrect using the meter, and these errors were due to either confirmed or potential deviations from the study instructions by the subjects when determining dose with meter. In the survey, 83% of the subjects expressed more confidence in the meter-calculated doses than the manually calculated doses. Furthermore, 87% of the subjects preferred to use the meter than manual calculation to determine prandial insulin doses.Insulin-using patients made errors in more than half of the manually calculated insulin doses. Use of the automated bolus calculator in the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter minimized errors in dose determination. The patients also expressed confidence and preference for using the meter. This may increase adherence and help optimize the use of mealtime insulin.Â© 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
Polymyxin use associated with respiratory arrest. - Chest
The polymyxins (polymyxin B and E) are bactericidal polypeptide antibiotics first discovered in 1947 and used for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. Renal and neurologic toxicities coupled with the increasing availability of effective alternatives led to declining use in the 1960s. The emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in the past decade has resulted in a resurgence in the use of polymyxins in critically ill patients, yet the side effects are not well known. We report two cases of respiratory arrest likely due to polymyxin B infusions in the context of a 10-fold increase in the use of polymyxin B in our institution over the past 10 years.
Performance of a new test strip for freestyle blood glucose monitoring systems. - Diabetes technology & therapeutics
a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip.laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip.for glucose concentrations <75â€‰mg/dL, 73%, 100%, and 100% of the individual capillary blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell withinâ€‰Â±â€‰5, 10, and 15â€‰mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations â‰¥75â€‰mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell withinâ€‰ Â± â€‰5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60â€‰s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity.our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.
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2022 State Route 71 Spring Lake, NJ 07762