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Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) - a new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants. - The Science of the total environment
Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: Î±-hexachlorocyclohexane (Î±-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heat shock, visible light or high calcium augment the cytotoxic effects of Ailanthus altissima (Swingle) leaf extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. - Natural product research
To gain new insight into the antimicrobial potential of Ailanthus altissima Swingle, ethanol leaf extracts were evaluated for the antifungal effects against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. The extracts inhibited the yeast growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect could be augmented by heat shock, exposure to visible light or exposure to high concentrations of Ca(2+). Using transgenic yeast cells expressing the Ca(2+)-dependent photoprotein, aequorin, it was found that the leaf extracts induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. Experiments on yeast mutants with defects in Ca(2+) transport demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of the A. altissima leaf extracts (AaLEs) was mediated by transient pulses of Ca(2+) ions which were released into the cytosol predominantly from the vacuole. The investigation of the antifungal synergies involving AaLEs may contribute to the development of optimal and safe combination therapies for the treatment of drug-resistant fungal infections.
A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock. - The Review of scientific instruments
We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192â€‰GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192â€‰GHz output signal are measured to be -42, -100, -117 dBâ€‰rad(2)/Hz and -129 dBâ€‰rad(2)/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 Ã— 10(-14) at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.
Calcium signaling mediates the response to cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. - FEBS letters
The involvement of Ca(2+) in the response to high Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+) was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast cells responded through a sharp increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) when exposed to Cd(2+), and to a lesser extent to Cu(2+), but not to Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), or Hg(2+). The response to high Cd(2+) depended mainly on external Ca(2+) (transported through the Cch1p/Mid1p channel) but also on vacuolar Ca(2+) (released into the cytosol through the Yvc1p channel). The adaptation to high Cd(2+) was influenced by perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Thus, the tolerance to Cd(2+) often correlated with sharp Cd(2+)-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) pulses, while the Cd(2+) sensitivity was accompanied by the incapacity to rapidly restore the low cytosolic Ca(2+).Copyright Â© 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[From miracle to dream come true: the rhetoric of hope and support for the medical profession in news items on transplants in Spain, 1900-1960]. - HistÃ³ria, ciÃªncias, saÃºde--Manguinhos
The article studies the building of public trust in transplants via a historico-discursive analysis of media sources from 1900 to 1960 in Spain. Maintaining the 'rhetoric of hope' as the journalistic strategy for representing transplants, the initial discursive approach involved the image of the doctor as hero, and transplants as miraculous events. After corneal implants became widespread, transplants were presented as a dream come true thanks to the scientific and technical skills of expert physicians. Since the first news of kidney transplants, the press stressed the promise of a better future through science but reflecting a more cautious medical position and confidence that results could be quantified.
French version of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment questionnaire-BITSEA. - Journal of pediatric psychology
The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA).The sample consisted of 589 low-risk infants aged 12-36 months and their parents. Parents completed the BITSEA, the Child Behavior Checklist 1Â½-5 (CBCL - 18 months to 5 years version), and the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI-SF).Multitrait-multimethod and confirmatory factor analyses revealed adequate psychometric properties for the French version of the BITSEA. Scores on the BITSEA Problem scale were positively correlated to all CBCL and PSI-SF subscales, whereas negative correlations were found between BITSEA Competence scale and CBCL and PSI-SF subscales. The BITSEA Problem score significantly increased with level of parental worry, examined through a single-item question that is part of the BITSEA.Findings support the validity of the French version of the BITSEA. However, additional work on the clinical validity of the BITSEA, including with at-risk children, is warranted.Â© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
[Communication, participation and leadership in the perception of the emotional climate in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain]. - Cadernos de saÃºde pÃºblica
The aim of this study was to identify and analyze perceptions and opinions among health professionals in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain, regarding the emotional climate, leadership style, quality of information, and internal communication. The study also aimed to collect health professionals' suggestions for improving these workplace characteristics. The study included 730 participants and used a quantitative and qualitative methodology. The results reflect a medium-to-low level of emotional climate, correlated with the leadership style and information and internal communication. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing professional categories and hospital units. The health professionals provided a positive assessment of the administrators' work, although requiring more task-oriented, participative, and affiliative leadership skills.
Adaptation of lettuce mosaic virus to Catharanthus roseus involves mutations in the central domain of the VPg. - Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI
An isolate of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, a Potyvirus) infecting Madagascar periwinckle (Catharanthus roseus) was identified and characterized by Illumina deep sequencing. LMV-Cr has no close affinities to previously sequenced LMV isolates and represents a novel, divergent LMV clade. Inoculation experiments with other representative LMV isolates showed that they are unable to infect C. roseus, which was not known to be a host for LMV. However, three C. roseus variants of one of these isolates, LMV-AF199, could be selected and partially or completely sequenced. These variants are characterized by the accumulation of mutations affecting the C-terminal part of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) helicase and the central part of the VPg. In particular, a serine to proline mutation at amino acid 143 of the VPg was observed in all three independently selected variants and is also present in the LMV-Cr isolate, making it a prime candidate as a host-range determinant. Other mutations at VPg positions 65 and 144 could also contribute to the ability to infect C. roseus. Inoculation experiments involving a recombinant LMV expressing a permissive lettuce eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) suggest that eIF4E does not contribute to the interaction of most LMV isolates with C. roseus.
A "tale of two countries": Narratives of hearts, patients and doctors in the Spanish press. - Public understanding of science (Bristol, England)
In this article we explore how the Spanish written press - ABC, La Vanguardia, and Blanco y Negro - and the official newsreel No-Do, created and disseminated a narrative about heart transplantations at the end of the 1960s. We consider how Franco's regime used Christiaan Barnard's heart transplants to legitimize the Spanish dictatorship and as a means of signifying scientific progress, modernization and national pride. The Spanish press created the plot of the first transplantations like that of a television series, presenting daily installments on the patients' progress, dramatizing the stories and ensuring the public's emotional attachment. The three main characters in the story: donors, patients and surgeons, formed a symbolic, indivisible narrative triangle endowed with singular meaning. This Spanish narrative of organ transplant technology was deployed through what we have called "a tale of two countries", that, emulating the South African's success, constructed in MartÃnez-BordiÃº, Franco's son-in-law, a home-grown, masculine scientific personality capable of performing heart surgery and endorsing Franco's investment in scientific modernization.Â© The Author(s) 2013.
[A liver transplant, a specific temporal experience]. - Soins; la revue de rÃ©fÃ©rence infirmiÃ¨re
In the case of a liver transplant, the patient undergoes a particular space-time experience. From the announcement of the diagnosis and the prospect of death in the absence of a transplant, until the moment of the procedure, the nurse-coordinator supports the patient who will experience successive times of waiting, hope, fear and survival.
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