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Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review. - Frontiers in psychology
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
Suppression subtractive hybridization method for the identification of a new strain of murine hepatitis virus from xenografted SCID mice. - Archives of virology
During attempts to clone retroviral determinants associated with a mouse model of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify unique viruses in the liver of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with LCH tissues. A partial genomic sequence of a murine coronavirus was identified, and the whole genome (31428 bp) of the coronavirus was subsequently sequenced using PCR cloning techniques. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the genome sequence of the new virus was 91-93Â % identical to those of known murine hepatitis viruses (MHVs). The predicted open reading frame from the nucleotide sequence encoded all known proteins of MHVs. Analysis at the protein level showed that the virus was closely related to the highly virulent MHV-JHM strain. The virus strain was named MHV-MI. No type D retroviruses were found. Degenerate PCR targeting of type D retrovirus and 5'-RACE targeting of other types of retroviruses confirmed the absence of any retroviral association with the LCH xenografted SCID mice.
Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves. - Advances in pharmacological sciences
Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200â€‰mg/kg and 400â€‰mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400â€‰mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 Â± 0.16 to 1.61 Â± 0.12â€‰mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5â€‰mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24â€‰h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420â€‰Âµg/mL. So the highest dose of 400â€‰Âµg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects.
Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans. - PloS one
The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.
Non-suicidal Self-injury in Different Eating Disorder Types: Relevance of Personality Traits and Gender. - European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association
The study explored lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in female and male individuals with eating disorders (ED) and compared ED symptoms, general psychopathology and personality traits across individuals with and without a history of NSSI. The incremental discriminative capacity of gender on the manifestation of lifetime NSSI was also studied. A total sample of 1649 consecutively admitted ED patients (1515 women and 134 men) participated in the current study [339 EDâ€‰+â€‰NSSI (ED with NSSI) and 1310 EDâ€‰-â€‰NSSI (ED without NSSI)]. Specific self-report measures were included and other clinical and psychopathological indices. The observed lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 20.6% (20.9% in women and 17.2% in men). NSSI was not associated with ED type or gender. However, EDâ€‰+â€‰NSSI patients exhibited more impulsive behaviour, substance-abuse disorders and additional impulse-control disorders, were younger and had more previous treatments. Age was shown to affect the presentation of NSSI. Additionally, EDâ€‰+â€‰NSSI patients exhibited more severe ED and general psychopathological symptoms and had more dysfunctional personality traits when compared with EDâ€‰-â€‰NSSI. EDâ€‰+â€‰NSSI was found to be positively associated with harm avoidance and self-transcendence but negatively with reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness. Thus, the variables with stronger capacity to identify the presence of EDâ€‰+â€‰NSSI were younger age, harm avoidance, self-directedness and self-transcendence. A lack of association between sex and ED subtype with the presence of NSSI was observed.Copyright Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Vascular Access Thrombosis in France: Incidence and Treatment Patterns. - Annals of vascular surgery
Vascular access thrombosis lacks the implementation of a treatment algorithm at large scale, involving all the actors. We aimed to determine a better understanding of the current practice patterns around vascular access thrombosis in France, with 4 axes: incidence, surveillance protocol, treatment, and time to treatment.A comprehensive survey of all the nephrologists staffing all hemodialysis centers in France during April 2013 included 266 of 269 (99%) centers, treating 27,798 patients with arteriovenous fistula or graft.In 104 centers treating 11,088 patients, there were 905 documented episodes of vascular access thrombosis (8.8%) in 1Â year; in the other 162 centers that supplied a range of events, the mean incidence was 8.4%. Use of in-line access flow monitoring as part of surveillance program was not correlated with better outcome compared with Doppler ultrasound (thrombosis: 7.9% vs. 10%, respectively, PÂ =Â 0.09). Fifty-three percent of centers referred the patients to a vascular surgeon and 32% to an interventional radiologist (2% to urologist and 13% variable referral depending on the case complexity). Time to treatment was <24 hr in 58% and <48 hr in 91% of the centers; treatment >48 hr (9%) occurred mainly in rural zones (PÂ =Â 0.04). The specialty of the treating physician did not influence time to treatment (PÂ >Â 0.05).In France, vascular access thrombosis rate is low and not influenced by surveillance protocol type. Most patients can receive timely treatment by vascular surgeons or interventional radiologists.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Relationship between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the UPPS-P Impulsivity Facets in Eating Disorders and Healthy Controls. - PloS one
In the present study, we investigated the association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and the UPPS-P impulsivity facets in eating disorder patients and healthy controls. The prevalence of NSSI in eating disorder (ED) patients ranged from 17% in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R) patients to 43% in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). In healthy controls (HC), the prevalence of NSSI was 19%. Eating disorder patients from the binge eating/purging type showed significantly more NSSI compared to restrictive ED and HC participants. Binge-eating/purging ED patients also scored significantly higher on Negative/Positive Urgency, Lack of Premeditation and Lack of Perseverance compared to HC and restrictive ED patients. Comparable findings were found between ED patients and HC with and without NSSI; ED patients and HC with NSSI scored significantly higher in four of the five UPPS-P dimensions compared to participants without NSSI; Sensation Seeking was the exception. Finally, the presence of NSSI in HC/ED patients was particularly predicted by low levels of Perseverance. Therefore, the treatment of ED patients with NSSI certainly needs to focus on the training of effortful control.
Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences. - BMC psychiatry
Studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder.A total sample of 2010 treatment-seeking patients with a gambling disorder participated in this stand-alone study. All were recruited from a single Pathological Gambling Unit in Spain (1709 strategic and 301 non-strategic gamblers). The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected at the start of treatment. Data was analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative responses.There were significant differences in several socio-demographic and clinical variables, as well as in personality traits (novelty seeking and cooperativeness). Multiple regression analysis showed harm avoidance and self-directedness were the main predictors of gambling severity and psychopathology, while age at assessment and age of onset of gambling behaviour were predictive of gambling severity. Strategic gambling (as opposed to non-strategic) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes, but the effect size of the relationships was small.It is possible to identify distinct phenotypes depending on the preference of gambling. While these phenotypes differ in relation to the severity of the gambling disorder, psychopathology and personality traits, they can be useful from a clinical and therapeutic perspective in enabling risk factors to be identified and prevention programs targeting specific individual profiles to be developed.
Elevated erythropoietin and multicystic neoplasm of the pancreas. - Case reports in oncology
Cystic lesions of the pancreas are more frequently recognized due to the widespread use of improved imaging techniques. There are a variety of pancreatic cystic lesions with different clinical presentations and malignant potentials, and their management depends on the type of the cysts. Although the early recognition of a cystic neoplasm with malignant potential provides an opportunity of early surgical treatment, the precise diagnosis of the cystic neoplasm can be a challenge, largely due to the lack of reliable biomarkers of malignant transformation. We report a case of a large, multicystic neoplasm within the body and tail of the pancreas complicated by elevated erythropoietin, which is likely related to the malignant transformation of the pancreatic neoplasm.
Students' perception of an integrated approach of teaching entire sequence of medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics courses in PharmD curriculum. - Journal of pharmacy practice
To develop an integrated approach of teaching medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics and to evaluate students' perceptions of integration as they progress through the PharmD curriculum.Instructors from each discipline jointly mapped the course contents and sequenced the course delivery based on organ systems/disease states. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology contents were integrated and aligned with respective pharmacotherapeutics contents to deliver throughout second and third year of the curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, active learning strategies such as recitation, case studies, online-discussion boards, open book quizzes, and writing patient progress notes were incorporated to enhance student learning. Student learning was assessed by examination scores, patient progress notes, and writing assignments. The impact of course integration was evaluated by a Web-based survey.One hundred and sixty-nine students completed the survey. Students exhibited positive attitude toward the integrated approach of teaching medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The P3 and P4 students better appreciated the benefits of integration compared to P2 students (P < .05).Students perceived the course integration as an effective way of learning. This study supports course improvement and the viability of expanding the concept of integration to other courses in the curriculum.Â© The Author(s) 2014.
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