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Extent of preoperative depression is associated with return to work after lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis. - World neurosurgery
The ability to understand factors associated with an increased duration of missed work postoperatively could be used to more effectively select patients with the greatest opportunity for a successful outcome. We set out to determine the effect of preoperative depression on postoperative return to work in patients undergoing transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis.Fifty-eight patients undergoing TLIF for symptomatic grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were included in this analysis. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, indications for surgery, radiologic studies, and operative variables were assessed for each case. Patient-assessed outcome measures were obtained prospectively at baseline and 2 years postoperatively. To understand the factors associated with prolonged return to work, univariate linear regression analysis and stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used.All patient-reported outcomes assessed were significantly improved 2 years after TLIF (P < 0.001). Of the 32 patients working preoperatively, 26 (81%) returned to work postoperatively. Median time to return to work was 56 days (range, 10-150 days). Independent of patient age; preoperative pain, disability, and quality of life; and extent of postoperative improvement, increased preoperative Zung depression score remained associated with prolonged return to work (P = 0.02).Independent of postoperative improvement in pain, disability, and quality of life, the extent of preoperative depression was an independent predictor of time to return to work in patients undergoing TLIF for spondylolisthesis, suggesting that regardless of how successful TLIF surgery may be at improving a patient's pain, disability, or quality of life, greater depression will delay or prohibit their ability to return to work postoperatively.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A comparative effectiveness trial of postoperative management for lumbar spine surgery: changing behavior through physical therapy (CBPT) study protocol. - BMC musculoskeletal disorders
The United States has the highest rate of lumbar spine surgery in the world, with rates increasing over 200% since 1990. Medicare spends over $1 billion annually on lumbar spine surgery. Despite surgical advances, up to 40% of patients report chronic pain and disability following surgery. Our work has demonstrated that fear of movement is a risk factor for increased pain and disability and decreased physical function in patients following lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-management treatments have the potential to address psychosocial risk factors and improve outcomes after spine surgery, but are unavailable or insufficiently adapted for postoperative care. Our research team developed a cognitive-behavioral based self-management approach to postoperative rehabilitation (Changing Behavior through Physical Therapy (CBPT)). Pilot testing of the CBPT program demonstrated greater improvement in pain, disability, physical and mental health, and physical performance compared to education. The current study compares which of two treatments provided by telephone - a CBPT Program or an Education Program about postoperative recovery - are more effective for improving patient-centered outcomes in adults following lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions.A multi-center, comparative effectiveness trial will be conducted. Two hundred and sixty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions will be recruited from two medical centers and community surgical practices. Participants will be randomly assigned to CBPT or Education at 6Â weeks following surgery. Treatments consist of six weekly telephone sessions with a trained physical therapist. The primary outcome will be disability and secondary outcomes include pain, general health, and physical activity. Outcomes will be assessed preoperatively and at 6Â weeks, 6Â months and 12Â months after surgery by an assessor masked to group allocation.Effective rehabilitation treatments that can guide clinicians in their recommendations, and patients in their actions will have the potential to effect change in current clinical practice.NCT02184143.
Preoperative narcotic use and its relation to depression and anxiety in patients undergoing spine surgery. - Spine
Prospective review of registry data at a single institution from October 2010 to June 2012.To assess whether the amount of preoperative narcotic use is associated with preoperative depression and anxiety in patients undergoing spine surgery for a structural lesion.Previous work suggests that narcotic use and psychiatric comorbidities are significantly related. Among other psychological considerations, depression and anxiety may be associated with the amount of preoperative narcotic use in patients undergoing spine surgery.Five hundred eighty-three patients undergoing lumbar (60%), thoracolumbar (11%), or cervical spine (29%) were included. Self-reported preoperative narcotic consumption was obtained at the initial preoperative visit and converted to daily morphine equivalent amounts. Preoperative Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ) scores were also obtained at the initial preoperative visit and recorded as measures of depression and anxiety, respectively. Resistant and robust bootstrapped multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between ZDS and MSPQ scores and preoperative narcotics, controlling for clinically important covariates. Mann-Whitney U tests examined preoperative narcotic use in patients who were categorized as depressed (ZDS â‰¥ 33) or anxious (MSPQ â‰¥ 12).Multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, smoking status, preoperative employment status, and prior spinal surgery demonstrated that preoperative ZDS (P = 0.006), prior spine surgery (P = 0.007), and preoperative pain (0.014) were independent risk factors for preoperative narcotic use. Preoperative MSPQ (P = 0.083) was nearly a statistically significant risk factor. Patients who were categorized as depressed or anxious on the basis of ZDS and MSPQ scores also showed higher preoperative narcotic use than those who were not (P < 0.0001).Depression and anxiety as assessed by ZDS and MSPQ scores were significantly associated with increased preoperative narcotic use, underscoring the importance of thorough psychological and substance use evaluation in patients being evaluated for spine surgery.
Phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) immuno-reactivity as a prognostic marker in non-functioning pituitary adenomas. - Pituitary
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are typically benign neoplasms that can cause significant morbidity through local mass effects. MIB-1/Ki-67 and p53 immuno-reactivity are used to predict aggressive behavior but have known limitations. No marker to date is widely used to reliably predict tumor progression. Phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) is a protein phosphorylated during chromatin condensation in mitosis, and thus anti-pHH3 immunocytochemistry is able to assess mitotic activity. Study objectives were to determine the relationship among pHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 in NFPA, and to evaluate the relationship between these indices and time to progression (TTP). Seventy-six patients with NFPA operated on by a single neurosurgeon at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1992 to 2006 were identified from a database and met all criteria for inclusion in this clinicopathology study. PHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 immuno-reactivity was evaluated in each case. Retrospective review was used to determine TTP. With 282 person-years of follow-up, 19 progression events were observed. A correlation was found between MIB-1/Ki-67 and p53 immuno-reactivity (r = 0.25, p = 0.031). PHH3 did not correlate with either. When markers were dichotomized at the median, only MIB-1/Ki-67 correlated with TPP (log rank p = 0.018). Rank correlation analysis confirmed a significant inverse correlation between both MIB-1/Ki-67 (Dxy = -0.33, p = 0.036) and p53 (Dxy = -0.40, 0.016) immuno-reactivity and TTP. Our results support previous data suggesting that MIB-1/Ki-67 and p53 have clinical utility as prognostic markers for tumor progression. PHH3 did not prove to be associated with TTP in this retrospective study limited by few progression events.
Cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of revision neural decompression and instrumented fusion for same-level recurrent lumbar stenosis: defining the value of surgical intervention. - Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
Despite advances in technology and understanding in spinal physiology, reoperation for symptomatic same-level recurrent stenosis continues to occur. Although revision lumbar surgery is effective, attention has turned to the question of the utility and value of revision decompression and fusion procedures. To date, an analysis of cost and heath state gain associated with revision lumbar surgery for recurrent same-level lumbar stenosis has yet to be described. The authors set out to assess the 2-year comprehensive cost of revision surgery and determine its value in the treatment of same-level recurrent stenosis.Forty-two patients undergoing revision decompression and instrumented fusion for same-level recurrent stenosis-associated leg and back pain were included in this study. Two-year total back-related medical resource utilization, missed work, and health state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from the EQ-5D with US valuation) were assessed. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs based on Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost), and patient and caregiver workday losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Mean total 2-year cost per QALY gained after revision surgery was assessed.The mean (Â± SD) interval between prior and revision surgery was 4.16 Â± 4.64 years. Bone morphogenetic protein was used in 7 cases of revision arthrodesis (16.7%). A mean cumulative 2-year gain of 0.84 QALY was observed after revision surgery. The mean total 2-year cost of revision fusion was $49,431 Â± $7583 (surgery cost $21,060 Â± $4459; outpatient resource utilization cost $9748 Â± $5292; indirect cost $18,623 Â± $9098). Revision decompression and extension of fusion was associated with a mean 2-year cost per QALY gained of $58,846.In the authors' practice, revision decompression and fusion provided a significant gain in health state utility for patients with symptomatic same-level recurrent stenosis, with a 2-year cost per QALY gained of $58,846. When indicated, revision surgery for same-level recurrent stenosis is a valuable treatment option for patients experiencing back and leg pain secondary to this disease. The authors' findings provide a value measure of surgery that can be compared with the results of future cost-per-QALY-gained studies of medical management or alternative surgical approaches.
Cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of laminectomy and extension of instrumented fusion for adjacent-segment disease: defining the value of surgical intervention. - Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of spinal fusions performed in the US and a corresponding increase in the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD). Surgical management of symptomatic ASD consists of decompression of neural elements and extension of fusion. It has been shown to have favorable long-term outcomes, but the cost-effectiveness remains unclear. In this study, the authors set out to assess the cost-effectiveness of revision surgery in the treatment of ASD over a 2-year period.Fifty patients undergoing neural decompression and extension of fusion construct for ASD-associated back and leg pain were included in the study. Two-year total back-related medical resource utilization, missed work, and health state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from the EQ-5D with US valuation) were assessed. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs based on Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost), and patient and caregiver workday losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Mean total 2-year cost per QALY gained after revision surgery was assessed.The mean (Â± SD) interval between prior fusion and revision surgery for ASD was 3.07 Â± 2.02 years. A mean cumulative 2-year gain of 0.76 QALYs was observed after revision surgery. The mean total 2-year cost of extension of fusion constructs was $47,846 Â± $32,712 (surgery cost: $24,063 Â± $300; outpatient resource utilization cost: $4175 Â± $3368; indirect cost: $19,607 Â± $32,187). Revision decompression and extension of fusion was associated with a mean 2-year cost per QALY gained of $62,955.In the authors' practice, revision decompression and extension of fusion provided a significant gain in health state utility for patients with symptomatic ASD, with a 2-year cost per QALY gained of $62,995. When indicated, revision surgery for ASD is a valuable treatment option for patients experiencing back and leg pain secondary to ASD. The findings provide a value measure of surgery that can be compared with future cost-per-QALY-gained studies of medical management or alternative surgical approaches.
Clinical indications for arterial imaging in cervical trauma. - Spine
A retrospective cohort study.To evaluate the clinical indications for acquiring arterial imaging in cervical trauma.Cervical spine injuries are very common in high-energy trauma and are frequently seen at Level I trauma centers across the country. A clinical standard of care does not exist to indicate when further evaluation of the cervical vasculature is warranted after a documented cervical spine injury.After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study combining the data from 2 Level I trauma centers was undertaken. An evaluation of every arterial imaging procedure (computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography) of the cervical spine was collected to further delineate indications and outcomes of these imaging modalities.From 2005 to 2009, there were a total of 159 patients who underwent cervical arterial imaging at the 2 participating institutions for the indication of cervical trauma with concern for arterial injury. Thirty-six (22.64%) were found to have an injury after arterial imaging. There was a statistically significant correlation with displaced cervical injuries (P < 0.0153), which were defined as cervical dissociations or perched and/or jumped facets. The other statistically significant correlation was the presence of a neurological deficit (P < 0.001), defined as any presenting deficit on sensory or motor examination. Level of injury defined as axial (O-C2) versus subaxial (C3-C7), age, body mass index, and history of cigarette smoking were not statistically related to vascular injury.Our retrospective evaluation indicates that there should be a lower threshold for obtaining arterial imaging with cervical injury patterns historically known to compromise the vasculature, which also have concomitant displaced cervical spine injuries and/or a neurological deficit.
Random postoperative day-3 cortisol concentration as a predictor of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after transsphenoidal surgery. - Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
To determine whether a random postoperative day-3 cortisol value of 10 Î¼g/dL or greater is predictive of adrenal sufficiency 3 to 10 weeks after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and during long-term clinical follow-up.We retrospectively reviewed the case records of patients who underwent TSS at our institution between 1991 and 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: random cortisol measured on the morning of postoperative day 3, adrenal dynamic testing performed 3 to 10 weeks after TSS, and clinical assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at least 6 months after TSS.A total of 466 patients underwent TSS at our institution during the study period. Eighty-three patients met study inclusion criteria. Sensitivity of a random postoperative day-3 serum cortisol value of 10 Î¼g/dL or greater for the prediction of adrenal sufficiency at a median follow-up of 42 days was 64.81% (95% confidence interval, 50.6%-77.32%), with an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-8.58). Specificity was 62.1% (95% confidence interval, 42.3%-79.3%). At a median follow-up of 500 days, only 2 patients with a postoperative day-3 cortisol value of 10 Î¼g/dL or greater required hydrocortisone replacement, both of whom had multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies and evidence of pituitary dysfunction during the perioperative period.In the appropriate clinical context, a postoperative day-3 cortisol value of 10 Î¼g/dL or greater accurately predicts the integrity of the HPA axis. The final decision regarding corticosteroid replacement should be personalized, considering the postoperative day-3 cortisol level, the clinical context in which the measurement was obtained, and any evidence of concomitant pituitary dysfunction in the perioperative period.
[First intention management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by custom-made mandibular advancement device: the medium-term results. Prospective study by the General Hospital Pneumologists College (CPHG)]. - Revue de pneumologie clinique
To demonstrate the efficacy and tolerance of present generation mandibular advancement devices in the first intention treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), even when severe, after one year.Between June 2006 and December 2007, 152 patients (male: 77%; age: 50.9Â±10.9 years; BMI: 26.3Â±3.6 kg/m(2); AHI: 25.5Â±13.9), without previous treatment, requesting management other than continuous positive pressure and dentally apt for a mandibular advancement device, were pre-included in a prospective one-year multicenter study (13 general hospitals).One hundred and twenty-nine patients were assessed at least once after fitting. The efficacy was noted as of day 90: the overall AHI fell from 24.8 to 10.8 (from 40.6 to 17.7 in the 40 patients with AHI>30) and the Epworth index decreased from 11.2 to 6.9 (12.8 to 8.1 for AHI>30). The AHI reduction was independent of gender, age, BMI and baseline AHI. The efficacy was maintained throughout the study period. Only eight patients withdrew for adverse events and seven for reasons of therapeutic failure.Mandibular advancement devices proved effective in first intention, including severe OSAS. No predictive individual efficacy factors emerged.Copyright Â© 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
The effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the aging cardiovascular system and its progenitor cells. - Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Aging is also associated with a decline in the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. This axis impacts endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell biology, as well as cardiac function. The number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) also decreases with age and is emerging as a surrogate measurement of vascular senescence. Studies suggest that EPCs impact vascular health by modulating vascular repair and function. Current evidence demonstrates that EPC number and function is restored with a GH-mediated increase in serum IGF-1. Modulation of the GH and IGF-1 system may therefore provide a useful therapy in the prevention of age-associated changes in the cardiovascular system and in future regenerative cell-based therapies.
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