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Progressive elaboration and cross-validation of a latent class typology of adolescent alcohol involvement in a national sample. - Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
Most studies of adolescent drinking focus on single alcohol use behaviors (e.g., high-volume drinking, drunkenness) and ignore the patterning of adolescents' involvement across multiple alcohol behaviors. The present latent class analyses (LCAs) examined a procedure for empirically determining multiple cut points on the alcohol use behaviors in order to establish a typology of adolescent alcohol involvement.LCA was carried out on six alcohol use behavior indicators collected from 6,504 7th through 12th graders who participated in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth). To move beyond dichotomous indicators, a "progressive elaboration" strategy was used, starting with six dichotomous indicators and then evaluating a series of models testing additional cut points on the ordinal indicators at progressively higher points for one indicator at a time. Analyses were performed on one random half-sample, and confirmatory LCAs were performed on the second random half-sample and in the Wave II data.The final model consisted of four latent classes (never or non-current drinkers, low-intake drinkers, non-problem drinkers, and problem drinkers). Confirmatory LCAs in the second random half-sample from Wave I and in Wave II support this four-class solution. The means on the four latent classes were also generally ordered on an array of measures reflecting psychosocial risk for problem behavior.These analyses suggest that there may be four different classes or types of alcohol involvement among adolescents, and, more importantly, they illustrate the utility of the progressive elaboration strategy for moving beyond dichotomous indicators in latent class models.
Antecedent predictors of children's initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol. - Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study.A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286).Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol.These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and does not represent a precocious manifestation of a psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior.Copyright Â© 2014 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.
Care and handling of laboratory mice. - Current protocols in microbiology
The importance of laboratory mice in experimental microbiology and biomedical research is indisputable, and their care and handling is a contributing factor to the quality of the science resulting from their use. This unit provides guidelines for practical housing, handling, and the methodology for sample collection to ensure animal health and minimize variable experimental parameters.Copyright Â© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Putting program evaluation to work: a framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice. - Translational behavioral medicine
The economic and human cost of suicidal behavior to individuals, families, communities, and society makes suicide a serious public health concern, both in the US and around the world. As research and evaluation continue to identify strategies that have the potential to reduce or ultimately prevent suicidal behavior, the need for translating these findings into practice grows. The development of actionable knowledge is an emerging process for translating important research and evaluation findings into action to benefit practice settings. In an effort to apply evaluation findings to strengthen suicide prevention practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supported the development of three actionable knowledge products that make key findings and lessons learned from youth suicide prevention program evaluations accessible and useable for action. This paper describes the actionable knowledge framework (adapted from the knowledge transfer literature), the three products that resulted, and recommendations for further research into this emerging method for translating research and evaluation findings and bridging the knowledge-action gap.
Types of alcohol use experience from childhood through adolescence. - The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
There have been few reports of the development of alcohol involvement from childhood through adolescence. We examined the ages at which children first sipped or tasted alcohol, drank, had three or more drinks in a row, had five or more drinks in a row, were drunk, or had alcohol problems, to describe the types of drinking experience exhibited at each age from 8.5 through 18.0 years. Sipping and three or more drinks per occasion have been understudied to date.We collected 14 waves of longitudinal data from 452 children aged 8 or 10 years, randomly sampled from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Ages of initiating each alcohol use behavior were determined, and the data were coded to reflect the child's status on each behavior at each age. We determined types of alcohol use experience using latent class analyses.From age 8.5 to 12.5 years, there were two latent classes: abstainers and sippers. The percentage of sippers increased to 67% by age 12.5 years. From ages 13.0 to 18.0, we identified three latent classes: abstainers, sippers/light drinkers, and drinkers with drunkenness. At ages 13.5-15.5 years, drinkers in the latter class reported drunkenness with just three to four drinks per occasion. By age 18 years, sippers/light drinkers comprised 55% of the sample and drinkers with drunkenness comprised 38%.Childhood experience with alcohol was surprisingly widespread. Sipping or tasting alcohol was common by age 12 years. A quarter of the sample drank before age 15 years. Experience of intoxication increased throughout adolescence, even among those who had ever consumed just three to four drinks on an occasion.Copyright Â© 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biliary manifestations of systemic diseases. - Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America
Patients with a variety of systemic diseases may present with clinical indications of biliary tract disorders. This article describes a group of systemic conditions associated with bile duct abnormalities and the role of endoscopic therapy in their diagnosis and management.Copyright Â© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The burden of alcohol use: focus on children and preadolescents. - Alcohol research : current reviews
The study of alcohol use by children ages 12 and younger has been very limited. This article summarizes information from U.S. national and statewide surveys on the prevalence of alcohol use among children in grades 6 and lower, data on health conditions wholly attributable to alcohol, the prevalence of children's treatment admissions for alcohol abuse, and their rates of presentation at emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Factors hampering the estimation of alcohol burden in this population include the lack of ongoing national surveys of alcohol use and problems in children, the hand-me-down nature of alcohol assessments in this population, and the lack of studies to establish whether there is a causal relationship between childhood-onset drinking and morbidity and mortality in adolescence and later in life that would permit determination of alcohol-attributable fractions. This article concludes that although the alcohol burden in childhood is low, it may be augmented by both referred alcohol burden through parental drinking and alcohol abuse and by deferred alcohol burden from longer-term consequences of early use.
Racial differences in the development of impulsivity and sensation seeking from childhood into adolescence and their relation to alcohol use. - Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
Pronounced differences in drinking behavior exist between African Americans and European Americans. Disinhibited personality characteristics are widely studied risk factors for alcohol use outcomes. Longitudinal studies of children have not examined racial differences in these characteristics and in their rates of change or whether these changes differentially relate to adolescent alcohol use.Latent growth curve modeling was performed on 7 annual waves of data on 447 African American and European American 8- and 10-year-old children followed into adolescence as part of the Tween to Teen Project. Both mother and child data were examined.European Americans had higher initial levels of (Î²Â =Â 0.22, pÂ <Â 0.001) and greater growth in sensation seeking (Î²Â =Â 0.16, pÂ <Â 0.05) compared with African Americans. However, African American children had higher initial levels of impulsivity compared with European American children (Î²Â =Â -0.27 and -0.16, pÂ <Â 0.01). Higher initial levels of sensation seeking (Î²Â =Â 0.18, pÂ <Â 0.01) and greater growth in both sensation seeking (Î²Â =Â 0.24, pÂ <Â 0.01) and impulsivity (Î²Â =Â 0.30 to 0.34, pÂ <Â 0.01) related to subsequent frequency of alcohol use. The association between race and alcohol use was partially mediated by initial levels of sensation seeking (Î²Â =Â 0.04, pÂ <Â 0.05; 95% CI: 0.004 to 0.078). Additionally, sharper increases in sensation seeking predicted greater levels of subsequent alcohol use for European Americans (Î²Â =Â 0.33, pÂ <Â 0.001) but not for African Americans (Î²Â =Â -0.15, ns).This study revealed different developmental courses and important racial differences for sensation seeking and impulsivity. Findings highlight the possibility that sensation seeking at least partly drives early alcohol use for European American but not for African American adolescents.Copyright Â© 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Drinking frequency as a brief screen for adolescent alcohol problems. - Pediatrics
Routine alcohol screening of adolescents in pediatric settings is recommended, and could be facilitated by a very brief empirically validated alcohol screen based on alcohol consumption. This study used national sample data to test the screening performance of 3 alcohol consumption items (ie, frequency of use in the past year, quantity per occasion, frequency of heavy episodic drinking) in identifying youth with alcohol-related problems.Data were from youth aged 12 to 18 participating in the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2000 to 2007. The screening performance of 3 alcohol consumption items was tested, by age and gender, against 2 outcomes: any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition alcohol use disorder symptom ("moderate"-risk outcome), and a diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition alcohol dependence ("high"-risk outcome).Prevalence of the 2 outcomes increased with age: any alcohol use disorder symptom ranged from 1.4% to 29.2%; alcohol dependence ranged from 0.2% to 5.3%. Frequency of drinking had higher sensitivity and specificity in identifying both outcomes, compared with quantity per occasion and heavy episodic drinking frequency. For both outcomes, results indicate the utility of similar cut points for drinking frequency for males and females at each age. Age-specific frequency cut points, however, are recommended for both moderate- and high-risk outcomes to maximize screening performance.Drinking frequency provides an empirically supported brief screen to efficiently identify youth with alcohol-related problems.
Childhood risk factors for early-onset drinking. - Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger.A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger.Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency.Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use.
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